Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network

Spain

Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network

Spain
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Fonseca-Pedrero E.,University of La Rioja | Fonseca-Pedrero E.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | Ortuno-Sierra J.,University of La Rioja | de Albeniz A.P.,University of La Rioja | And 3 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2017

The main goal of the present study was to explore the latent structure of schizotypal traits in non-clinical young adults, and compare the latent profiles in clinical and personality characteristics: mental distress, psychosis-proneness, hypomanic experiences, and anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. A large sample of college students (N =1002; mean age =21.11 years; SD =3.92) were administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale. Using latent profile analysis, four latent classes (LC) were identified: “low schizotypy” (62.4%), “average schizotypy” (17.6%), “interpersonal schizotypy” (17.1%), and “high schizotypy” (2.9%). The “high schizotypy” class scored higher on most psychometric indicators of psychopathology and personality (i.e., mental distress, schizotypy, hypomanic experiences, and anticipatory and consummatory pleasure) relative to other three latent classes. The other three schizotypal latent profiles also varied in terms of these psychopathology and personality factors. The identification of homogeneous subgroups of individuals potentially at-risk for psychosis based on schizotypal latent profiles may improve early identification and prevention efforts aimed at reducing the burden associated with psychotic-spectrum disorders and mental health problems. © 2017


Fonseca-Pedrero E.,University of La Rioja | Fonseca-Pedrero E.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | Fumero A.,University of La Laguna | Paino M.,University of Oviedo | And 7 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2014

Schizotypal traits represent the behavioral expression of vulnerability to psychosis in general population. Among the most widely used measurement instruments, we could find the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991). However, some aspects of its psychometric quality have yet to be analyzed. The main goal of the present study was to gather new sources of validity evidence of the SPQ scores in non-clinical young adults. The final sample was made up of 1123 college students (M=20.3 years; S.D.=2.6). The study of the internal structure using exploratory factor analysis revealed that SPQ items were grouped in a theoretical structure of seven second-order factors. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the four-factor model (Paranoid) displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than the other hypothetical dimensional models tested. More complex measurement models, such as those tested using second-order confirmatory factor analyses and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, also showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices. The reliability of the SPQ scores ranged from 0.80 to 0.91. A total of 11 items showed differential functioning by gender. Advances in psychosis phenotype measurement open up new horizons to understand the structure and content of schizotypy. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Ortuno-Sierra J.,University of La Rioja | Fonseca-Pedrero E.,University of La Rioja | Paino M.,University of Oviedo | Sastre I Riba S.,University of La Rioja | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2015

The main purpose of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), self-reported version, in Spanish adolescents, introducing a five-point Likert response scale. The sample consisted of 1474 adolescents with a mean age of 15.92 years (SD=1.18). The level of internal consistency of the SDQ Total score was.75, ranging from.56 to.71 for the subscales. Results from exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure as the most satisfactory. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the five-factor model (with modifications) displayed better goodness of-fit indices than the other hypothetical dimensional models tested. Furthermore, strong measurement invariance by age and partial measurement invariance by gender was supported. The study of the psychometric properties confirms that the Spanish version of the SDQ, self-reported form, is a useful tool for the screening of emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents. © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.


Ortuno-Sierra J.,University of La Rioja | Badoud D.,University of Geneva | Knecht F.,University of Geneva | Paino M.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B), the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. Methods: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years) and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years). Results: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance) of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. Discussion: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures. © 2013 Ortuño-Sierra et al.


Fonseca-Pedrero E.,University of La Rioja | Fonseca-Pedrero E.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | Paino M.,University of Oviedo | Paino M.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | And 5 more authors.
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Delusions show high prevalence in the general population and can be considered a risk marker for psychotic disorders. Although the assessment of these experiences has made considerable progress in recent years, there is still room for improvement in the measurement quality of the self-reports available for such assessment. The goal of the present work was to analyze the measurement quality of the Peters et al Delusions Inventory 21 (PDI-21) in Spanish college students. The final sample was made up of 660 participants (29.5% men) with a mean age of 20.3 years (SD, 2.6 years). The results revealed that a high percentage of the sample reported some symptom of paranoia. Analysis of the internal structure of the PDI-21 by means of exploratory factor analysis based on the tetrachoric correlation matrix yielded an essentially unidimensional solution. Cronbach α for the total score was.91. Scores on the PDI-21 correlated in a statistically significant fashion with trait and state anxiety and negative affect. These results provide new evidence of the validity of the PDI-21 and endorse its use as a measurement instrument for assessing the extended psychosis phenotype in nonclinical population. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Fonseca-Pedrero E.,University of La Rioja | Fonseca-Pedrero E.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | Gooding D.C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Ortuno-Sierra J.,University of La Rioja | Paino M.,University of Oviedo
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Background The reliable early identification of individuals at risk for psychosis requires well-validated screening measures. To date, there is little information about the psychometric properties of the screening measures for psychosis risk in nonclinical adolescents. The main purpose of the present study was to validate the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief (PQ-B) in a community sample of non-clinical Spanish adolescents. We also analyzed the prevalence, factorial validity, and reliability of the PQ-B scores as well as the relationship between self-reported clinical high risk symptoms and schizotypal traits. Method Four hundred and forty-nine high-school students participated in a cross-sectional survey. The PQ-B and the Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire (ESQUIZO-Q) were used. Results Although 85.1% of the total sample reported at least one clinical high risk symptom, only 16% of the adolescents scored above the standardized cut-off. The PQ-B revealed an essentially unidimensional structure. The internal consistency of the PQ-B total score was 0.93. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated a high degree of overlap between self-reported clinical high risk symptoms and Positive and Disorganized schizotypal traits. A Canonical correlation between the PQ-B total score and ESQUIZO-Q dimensions showed that the associated variance between both sets of variables was 45.4% (adjusted R2 = 0.45). Conclusions The PQ-B is a brief, easy, and reliable tool for screening self-reported clinical high risk symptoms in adolescents from the general population. These results also indicated that self-reported clinical high risk symptoms and schizotypal traits are closely associated at the subclinical level. The assessment of psychosis risk symptoms and their relationship with other distal risk factors, in a close-in strategy, may enhance the early identification of individuals at heightened risk for psychosis spectrum disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Fonseca-Pedrero E.,University of La Rioja | Fonseca-Pedrero E.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | Paino M.,University of Oviedo | Paino M.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | And 5 more authors.
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2014

The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales are one of the most used measuring instruments for the assessment of psychometric risk for psychosis. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the reliability of the scores and to provide new sources of validity evidence for the brief version of the Magical Ideation Scale (MIS-B) and the Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS-B). The final sample was comprised of a total of 1349 university students divided into two subsamples (n1 = 710; M = 19.8 years; n2 = 639; M = 21.2 years). Results show that both measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties under Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. Internal structure analysis of MIS-B and PAS-B, through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, yielded an essentially one-dimensional solution. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total score of MIS-B ranged between 0.86 and 0.87, whereas for the PAS-B it ranged between 0.78 and 0.89. A total of 5 items showed a differential functioning for sex. The results indicate that the MIS-B and PAS-B are brief measurement instruments with adequate psychometric properties for the assessment of the positive dimension of the psychosis phenotype and could be used as screening tools in the detection of individuals at risk for psychosis in the general population. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Fonseca-Pedrero E.,University of Oviedo | Fonseca-Pedrero E.,Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network | Sierra-Baigrie S.,University of Oviedo | Lemos-Girldez S.,University of Oviedo | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2012

Purpose: The aim of the present work was to examine the correlated eight-syndrome model of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) proposed by Ivanova et al [1], using a confirmatory factor analysis for ordinal data. Likewise, we explored the measurement invariance of the YSR across gender and age using multigroup comparisons, and checked whether there were differences in the latent means. Methods: The sample was made up of 4,868 nonclinical adolescents (47.6% males), with a mean age of 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Results: The correlated eight-syndrome model proposed by Ivanova et al [1] showed a reasonable fit to the data, both for the total sample and by participants' gender and age. Moreover, the factor-equivalence analysis showed that the hypothesized dimensional model was invariant across gender and age. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing latent means between the groups. Conclusions: These results coincide with those found in the literature and are in support of the replicability, generalizability, and consistency of the eight-syndrome model of the YSR, as well as its measurement invariance across gender and age. Future studies should explore the measurement invariance of this model through multigroup comparisons across cultures. © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Complejo Hospitalario of Navarre, Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network, University of Geneva and University of La Rioja
Type: | Journal: International journal of methods in psychiatric research | Year: 2016

There have been several attempts to identify individuals potentially at high risk for psychotic-spectrum disorders using brief screening measures. However, relatively few studies have tested the psychometric properties of the psychosis screening measures in representative samples of adolescents. The main purpose of the present study was to analyse the prevalence, factorial structure, measurement invariance across gender, and reliability of the Youth Psychosis At-Risk Questionnaire - Brief (YPARQ-B) in a community-derived sample of adolescents. Additionally, the relationship between YPARQ-B, depressive symptoms, psychopathology, stress manifestations, and prosocial skills was analysed. One thousand and twenty students from high schools participated in a cross-sectional survey. The YPARQ-B, the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Student Stress Inventory - Stress Manifestations were used. A total of 85.1% of the total sample self-reported at least one subclinical psychotic experience. We observed a total of 10.9% of adolescents with a cutoff score of 11 or 6.8% with a cutoff score of 13. The analysis of internal structure of the YPARQ-B yielded an essentially unidimensional structure. The YPARQ-B scores showed measurement invariance across gender. The internal consistency of the YPARQ-B total score was 0.94. Furthermore, self-reported subclinical psychotic experiences were associated with depressive symptoms, emotional and behavioural problems, poor prosocial skills, and stress manifestations. These results would appear to indicate that YPARQ-B is a brief and easy tool to assess self-reported subclinical psychotic experiences in adolescents from the general population. The assessment of these experiences in community settings, and its associations with psychopathology, may help us to enhance the possibility of an early identification of adolescents potentially at risk for psychosis and mental health problems.


PubMed | Navarre Hospital Complex and Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis.

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