Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Marthandam, India

Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Marthandam, India

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Balakumar S.,SASTRA University | Rajan S.,Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College | Thirunalasundari T.,Bharathidasan University | Jeeva S.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200μg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Rajan S.,Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College | Thirunalasundari T.,Bharathidasan University | Jeeva S.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial efficacy of the seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) against the enteropathogen, Shigella dysenteriae (S. dysenteriae), isolated from the diarrhoeal stool specimens. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Cold extraction method was employed to extract the bioactive compounds from mango seed kernel. Disc diffusion method was adopted to screen antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by agar dilution method. The crude extracts were partially purified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the fractions were analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to identify the bioactive compounds. Results: Phytochemical scrutiny of M. indica indicated the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, gums, flavanoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and xanthoproteins. Antibacterial activity was observed in two crude extracts and various fractions viz. hexane, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water. MIC of methanol fraction was found to be (95±11.8) μg/mL. MIC of other fractions ranged from 130-380 μg/mL. Conclusions: The present study confirmed that each crude extracts and fractions of M. indica have significant antimicrobial activity against the isolated pathogen S. dysenteriae. The antibacterial activity may be due to the phytochemical constituents of the mango seed kernel. The phytochemical tannin could be the reason for its antibacterial activity. © 2011.


Rasingam L.,Deccan Regional Center | Jeeva S.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology | Kannan D.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To identify and understand the utilization and prioritization of medicinal plants used as tooth sticks by the select communities of Andaman and Nicobar islands. Methods: The information was collected through questionnaires and discussions among the informants in their local language regarding the plant parts used. Results: A total of 11 plant species belonging to 10 genera and 8 families were enumerated as tooth sticks, used by the Chota Nagpuri and Tamil inhabitants of Andaman and Nicobar islands to treat dental caries. Conclusion: The most important plant species harvested for tooth sticks belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae (3 species) and important as the tribal have used these plants since time immemorial and found effective in their teeth and gums health and this study has scopes on the conservation of certain medicinal plants, through sustainable utilization. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Jeeva S.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology | Antonisamy J.M.,St Xaviers College Autonomous
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity and phytochemical properties of Begonia floccifera Bedd. (B. floccifera) methanolic flower extracts against the selected pathogens. Methods: 20 g of fresh flowers were soaked in 100 mL methanol for 48 h at room temperature. After 48 h, the extracts were filtered using Whatman No. 41 filter paper. The filtrates were collected, made up to known volume and stored in refrigerator at 4 °C. The methanolic extracts were used for phytochemical and antibacterial studies. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed according to the modified Harborne method. The methanolic flower extracts of B. floccifera Bedd. was tested against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes by the disc diffusion method. Results: The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenol, tannins, xanthoproteins, steroids, tannins, steroids, phytosterols, triterpenoids, sapogenins, coumarins and carbohydrates presence in the methanolic extracts of B. floccifera. The antibacterial activity has been observed in the methanolic extracts of B. floccifera against the tested bacteria with varied activity. The maximum zone of inhibition was 28 mm for Bacillus cereus, 25 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 15 mm for Escherichia coli, 13 mm for Proteus mirabilis, 7 mm for Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of B. floccifera methanolic flower extracts are comparable and their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Mithraja M.J.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology | Irudayaraj V.,St Xaviers College Autonomous | Kiruba S.,Scott Christian College Autonomous | Jeeva S.,Scott Christian College Autonomous
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To make scientific validation of the ethnomedicinal fern Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith in relation to urinary disorders. Methods: Antibacterial study was carried out on clinically isolated Urinary Tract Infecting (UTI) bacteria by disc diffusion method. Results: Among the six extracts tested against eight different UTI bacteria, acetone extract was effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes, while ethanol extract was effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of phytoconstituents viz. phenols, tannin, alkaloids, proteins, xanthoproteins, carboxylic acid, coumarins and saponins. Conclusions: Based on the present study, along with previous studies, the ethnomedicinal use of Drynaria quercifolia for the treatment of urinary infection has been scientifically validated. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Prakash J.W.,Scott Christian College | Johnson M.,St Xaviers College Autonomous | Jeeva S.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fresh water microalgae viz., Oscillatoria sancta (O. sancta) (Kuetz) Gomont., Lyngbya birgei (L. birgei) Smith G.M., Oedogonium echinospermum (O. echinospermum), Spirogyra decimina (S. decimina) (Muller) Kuetz., Spirogyra grantiana (S. grantiana) Transeau., Spirogyra crassa (S. crassa), Spirogyra biformis (S. biformis) Jao. and Spirogyra condensata (Vaucher) Kuetz against human bacterial pathogens. Methods: Antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion method against the pathogens viz., Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 35218), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC 6538), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) (MTCC 733), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and Streptococcus pyogenes. Results: The methanolic extract of O. sancta showed the antibacterial activity against three pathogens viz., P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and S. aureus with the inhibition zones of 10, 8 and 8 mm, respectively. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of L. birgei exhibited the antibacterial activity against two pathogens i.e. P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris with the maximum zone of inhibition of 8 and 8 mm, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of O. echinospermum displayed the antibacterial activity against S. typhi and P. mirabilis with the maximum of zone of inhibition (7 mm). The methanolic extracts of S. decimina exhibited the antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. mirabilis with the maximum zone of inhibition of 12 and 9 mm, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of S. grantiana showed the anti-bacterial activity against three organisms i.e. E. coli, P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis with the zone of inhibition of 9, 10 and 9 mm, respectively. The methanolic extracts of S. crassa exhibited the antibacterial activity against P. mirabilis with the maximum zone of inhibition (9 mm). The methanolic extracts of S. biformis exhibited the antibacterial activity against P. vulgaris with the maximum zone of inhibition (8 mm). Conclusions: These results give an indication of the presence of promising antibacterialcompounds in the plants under studied. Further phytochemical studies are needed to elucidatethe components responsible for antibacterial activity of these extracts against bacteria.


Jeeva S.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology | Femila V.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To conduct an ethnobotanical survey and collect information about the medicinal plants used in the treatments of various ailments by the Nadars of Atoor village of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Information presented in this document was gathered from the Nadars using an integrated approach of botanical collections, discussions with the elderly people, traditional medicinal practitioners (locally known as Vaidhyars) and local faith healer and interviews with questionnaires in the years 2009-2010. Results: A total of 89 plant species representing 47 families have been reported to be in use among the Nadars of the study area. Family wise distribution of medicinal plants shows Acanthaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Lamiaceae was the most speciose family with 5 genus and 5 species each and Liliaceae was the co-dominant family represented by 3 genus and 4 species. Of the 89 plants species, 14 were tree species, 18 shrubs, 47 herbs and 10 climbers. Conclusion: The study revealed that Nadars have a great faith in the traditional healing system and they rely on medicinal plants for treatment of various illnesses. Further studies on phytochemistry, pharmacology and pharmacognosy on these species may lead to the invention of novel bioactive compounds to treat pathogenic diseases. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Anitha V.T.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology
Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine | Year: 2012

To examine the ethanol, aqueous, chloroform, benzene, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of, Hemigraphis colorata (H. colorata) leaves and stem and Elephantopus scaber (E. scaber) leaves, root and flower for the presence of phyto-constituents and screened the anti-bacterial activity against the selected pathogens. The fresh materials were shade dried and powdered using the tissue blender. The dried and powered materials (50 g) were extracted successively with 200 mL of aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extractor for 8 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts were prepared from powdered materials were used for preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies using standard methods. The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root and H. colorata leaves and stem demonstrated that out of (5×6×12 = 360) tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 188 tests gave positive results and the remaining 172 gave negative results. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenol (12/12), carbohydrates (9/12), steroids (8/12), saponins and coumarins (7/12), tannins (6/12), proteins (5/12), carboxylic acid and flavonoids (4/12), xanthoproteins (3/12) and alkaloids (2/12) presence in the crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of H. colorata leaves and stem. The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root displayed the presence of phenol (18/18), tannin (17/18), carbohydrates (16/18), steroids (14/18), carboxylic acid and coumarins (12/18), saponins (10/18), xanthoprotein (9/18), flavonoids (7/18), protein (4/18) and alkaloids (2/18). The root ethanolic extracts of E. scaber illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against three pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (24 mm), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (16 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (13 mm). The chlorofrom extracts of E. scaber showed the highest zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) (12 mm), The leaves ethanolic extracts of E. scaber demonstrated the highest zone of inhibition against three pathogens viz., Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) (18 mm), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) (17 mm), Salmonella Typhi (S. typhi) (14 mm) and Enterobacter sp. (11 mm) While the benzene extracts of H. colorata demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against the pathogen Acinetobacter sp. (14 mm) and S. aureus (12 mm). It is hoped that this study would direct to the establishment of some compounds that could be used to invent new and more potent antimicrobial drugs of natural origin. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sukumaran S.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology | Mahesh M.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology | Jeeva S.,Scott Christian College Autonomous
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To identify the phytoconstituents present in the fronds of Tectaria zeylanica. Methods: Screening of phytochemicals was done by using the standard methods given by Harborne. Results: Phytochemical screening of the fronds of Tectaria zeylanica confirmed the presence of various derivatives such as phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, xanthoproteins, coumarins and carbohydrates. Conclusions: The present observations suggest a possibility to establish high yielding plantlets by in vitro culture for the production of medicinally important bioactive compounds against human pathogenic microorganisms. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Raja R.D.A.,Scott Christian College Autonomous | Jeeva S.,Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology | Prakash J.W.,Scott Christian College Autonomous | Antonisamy J.M.,St Xaviers College Autonomous | Irudayaraj V.,St Xaviers College Autonomous
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To screen the antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants Chassalia curviflora Thw. (C. curviflora), Cyclea peltata Hook F & Thomson (C. peltata) and Euphorbia hirta L (E. hirta) used in folk medicines in Aarukani hills Kani tribe, Tamil Nadu, India against human bacterial pathogens. Methods: Antibacterial efficacy was performed by disc diffusion method against the pathogens viz., Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 35218), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC 6538), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) (MTCC 733), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C. Results: The maximum degree of antibacterial activity was observed in C. peltata followed by C. curviflora. While E. hirta showed comparatively low degree of antibacterial activity. The methanolic extract of C. peltata showed the antibacterial activity against three pathogens viz., S. pyogenes, P. vulgaris and E. coli with the inhibition zones 12 mm, 10 mm and 9 mm, respectively. hexane extracts of C. peltata also showed the antibacterial activity against two selected pathogens viz., P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis with 15 mm and 12 mm of inhibition zones. All the three different concentrations (0.25, 0.50 & 0.75 mg/mL) of methanolic extract of C. peltata show the inhibitory effect on the three susceptible bacteria S. pyogenes, P. vulgaris and E. coli with the maximum inhibition in the highest concentration (0.75 mg/mL). The methanolic and hexane extracts of C. curviflora exhibited the antibacterial activity against only one bacterium each i.e. P. vulgaris and S. typhi with the maximum zone of inhibition 13 and 11 mm respectively. The methanolic and hexane extracts of E. hirta exhibited the antibacterial activity against only one bacterium i.e. S. pyogenes with the maximum zone of inhibition 13 and 11 mm respectively. Conclusions: The present investigation revealed that the C. curviflora, C. peltata and E. hirta are potentially good source of antibacterial agents and demonstrates the importance of such plants in traditional medicines. © 2011 Hainan Medical College.

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