Center for Behavioral and Brain science

Magdeburg, Germany

Center for Behavioral and Brain science

Magdeburg, Germany
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Tyll S.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Bonath B.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Schoenfeld M.A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Schoenfeld M.A.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology | And 5 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

Approaching or looming signals are often related to extremely relevant environmental events (e.g. threats or collisions) making these signals critical for survival. However, the neural network underlying multisensory looming processing is not yet fully understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we identified the neural correlates of audiovisual looming processing in humans: audiovisual looming (vs. receding) signals enhance fMRI-responses in low-level visual and auditory areas plus multisensory cortex (superior temporal sulcus; plus parietal and frontal structures). When characterizing the fMRI-response profiles for multisensory looming stimuli, we found significant enhancements relative to the mean and maximum of unisensory responses in looming-sensitive visual and auditory cortex plus STS. Superadditive enhancements were observed in visual cortex. Subject-specific region-of-interest analyses further revealed superadditive response profiles within all sensory-specific looming-sensitive structures plus bilateral STS for audiovisual looming vs. summed unisensory looming conditions. Finally, we observed enhanced connectivity of bilateral STS with low-level visual areas in the context of looming processing. This enhanced coupling of STS with unisensory regions might potentially serve to enhance the salience of unisensory stimulus features and is accompanied by superadditive fMRI-responses. We suggest that this preference in neural signaling for looming stimuli effectively informs animals to avoid potential threats or collisions. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Bonath B.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Tyll S.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Budinger E.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Budinger E.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology | And 6 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

Recent electrophysiological studies have reported short latency modulations in cortical regions for multisensory stimuli, thereby suggesting a subcortical, possibly thalamic origin of these modulations. Concurrently, there is an ongoing debate, whether multisensory interplay reflects automatic, bottom-up driven processes or relies on top-down influences. Here, we dissociated the effects of task set and stimulus configurations on BOLD-signals in the human thalamus with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We orthogonally manipulated temporal and spatial congruency of audio-visual stimulus configurations, while subjects judged either their temporal or spatial congruency. Voxel-based fMRI results revealed increased fMRI-signals for the temporal versus spatial task in posterior and central thalamus, respectively. A more sensitive region of interest (ROI)-analysis confirmed that the posterior thalamic nuclei showed a preference for the temporal task and central thalamic nuclei for the spatial task. Moreover, the ROI-analysis also revealed enhanced fMRI-signals for spatially incongruent stimuli in the central thalamus. Together, our results demonstrate that both audio-visual stimulus configurations and task-related processing of spatial or temporal stimulus features selectively modulate thalamic processing and thus are in a position to influence cortical processing at an early stage. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Lehmann M.,University of Zürich | Lehmann M.,ETH Zurich | Seifritz E.,University of Zürich | Seifritz E.,ETH Zurich | And 10 more authors.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Distraction and rumination are distinct response styles that determine how an individual deals with negative thoughts and feelings. Rumination is accompanied by an elevated self-focus, which is associated with increased resting state functional connectivity and decreased reactivity within the default mode network. Interestingly, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine reduces functional connectivity in this network, while its effects on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses during stimulus perception are not known. Ketamine might lead to a more variable processing of the external world with an attenuated self-focus by reducing the resting state connectivity. Here, we used an emotional picture-viewing task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that a single ketamine administration to healthy subjects increases BOLD reactivity to negative stimuli. We found a region specific increase in BOLD reactivity in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and not in a posterior control region after ketamine compared with placebo administration. Moreover, a linear regression revealed that the increase in BOLD reactivity was more pronounced for subjects with a low ability to apply distraction during negative experiences. Our results implicate that ketamine attenuates a potentially pathological increased self-focus during negative experiences. © The Author (2016).

Braun K.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Braun K.,Center for Behavioral and Brain science | Bock J.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Bock J.,Center for Behavioral and Brain science | And 6 more authors.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2016

This review focuses on the inter- and transgenerational effects of stress experience prior to and during gestation. We provide an overview of findings from studies in humans as well as in animal models on brain structural and physiological functions and on the development of cognitive and executive functions. We also discuss the concept of stress-induced (re-)programming in more detail by highlighting epigenetic mechanisms and particularly those affecting the development of monoaminergic transmitter systems, which constitute the braińs reward system. As the majority of studies have focused on male individuals we will emphasize sex-specific differences in stress vulnerability and resilience. Finally, we offer some perspectives on the development of protective and therapeutic interventions in cognitive and emotional disturbances resulting from pre-conception and prenatal stress. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Maass A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Schutze H.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Speck O.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Speck O.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | And 17 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

The ability to form long-term memories for novel events depends on information processing within the hippocampus (HC) and entorhinal cortex (EC). The HC-EC circuitry shows a quantitative segregation of anatomical directionality into different neuronal layers. Whereas superficial EC layers mainly project to dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and apical CA1 layers, HC output is primarily sent from pyramidal CA1 layers and subiculum to deep EC layers. Here we utilize this directionality information by measuring encoding activity within HC/EC subregions with 7T high resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Multivariate Bayes decoding within HC/EC subregions shows that processing of novel information most strongly engages the input structures (superficial EC and DG/CA2-3), whereas subsequent memory is more dependent on activation of output regions (deep EC and pyramidal CA1). This suggests that while novelty processing is strongly related to HC-EC input pathways, the memory fate of a novel stimulus depends more on HC-EC output. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Maass A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Maass A.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | Berron D.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Berron D.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | And 6 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2015

The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the primary site of interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus. Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that connect differentially with perirhinal cortex (PRC) vs parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and with hippocampal subfields along the proximo-distal axis. Here, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla to identify functional subdivisions of the human EC. In two independent datasets, PRC showed preferential intrinsic functional connectivity with anterior-lateral EC and PHC with posterior-medial EC. These EC subregions, in turn, exhibited differential connectivity with proximal and distal subiculum. In contrast, connectivity of PRC and PHC with subiculum followed not only a proximal-distal but also an anterior-posterior gradient. Our data provide the first evidence that the human EC can be divided into functional subdivisions whose functional connectivity closely parallels the known anatomical connectivity patterns of the rodent and nonhuman primate EC. © Maass et al.

Scheidegger M.,ETH Zurich | Scheidegger M.,University of Zürich | Walter M.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Walter M.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), the "dorsal nexus "(DN) was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN), the default mode network (DMN), and a rostral affective network (AN). Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010) proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC) and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC) via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression. © 2012 Scheidegger et al.

Wagenbreth C.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Zaehle T.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Galazky I.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Voges J.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2015

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson’s disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward (“Pavlovian congruency”) and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lord A.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Lord A.,University of Queensland | Horn D.,Leibnitz Institute for Neurobiology | Horn D.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Major depression is a prevalent disorder that imposes a significant burden on society, yet objective laboratory-style tests to assist in diagnosis are lacking. We employed network-based analyses of "resting state" functional neuroimaging data to ascertain group differences in the endogenous cortical activity between healthy and depressed subjects. We additionally sought to use machine learning techniques to explore the ability of these network-based measures of resting state activity to provide diagnostic information for depression. Resting state fMRI data were acquired from twenty two depressed outpatients and twenty two healthy subjects matched for age and gender. These data were anatomically parcellated and functional connectivity matrices were then derived using the linear correlations between the BOLD signal fluctuations of all pairs of cortical and subcortical regions. We characterised the hierarchical organization of these matrices using network-based matrics, with an emphasis on their mid-scale "modularity" arrangement. Whilst whole brain measures of organization did not differ between groups, a significant rearrangement of their community structure was observed. Furthermore we were able to classify individuals with a high level of accuracy using a support vector machine, primarily through the use of a modularity-based metric known as the participation index. In conclusion, the application of machine learning techniques to features of resting state fMRI network activity shows promising potential to assist in the diagnosis of major depression, now suggesting the need for validation in independent data sets. © 2012 Lord et al.

Bonath B.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Noesselt T.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Noesselt T.,Center for Behavioral and Brain science | Krauel K.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | And 3 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

An essential task of our perceptual systems is to bind together the distinctive features of single objects and events into unitary percepts, even when those features are registered in different sensory modalities. In cases where auditory and visual inputs are spatially incongruent, they may still be perceived as belonging to a single event at the location of the visual stimulus - a phenomenon known as the 'ventriloquist illusion'. The present study examined how audio-visual temporal congruence influences the ventriloquist illusion and characterized its neural underpinnings with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behaviorally, the ventriloquist illusion was reduced for asynchronous versus synchronous audio-visual stimuli, in accordance with previous reports. Neural activity patterns associated with the ventriloquist effect were consistently observed in the planum temporale (PT), with a reduction in illusion-related fMRI-signals ipsilateral to visual stimulation for central sounds perceived peripherally and a contralateral increase in illusion-related fMRI-signals for peripheral sounds perceived centrally. Moreover, it was found that separate but adjacent regions within the PT were preferentially activated for ventriloquist illusions produced by synchronous and asynchronous audio-visual stimulation. We conclude that the left-right balance of neural activity in the PT represents the neural code that underlies the ventriloquist illusion, with greater activity in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the direction of the perceived shift of sound location. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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