Doll D.N.,West Virginia University |
Doll D.N.,Center for Neuroscience |
Doll D.N.,Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research |
Rellick S.L.,West Virginia University |
And 11 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2015
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is known to exacerbate ischemic brain injury; however, the mechanism is unknown. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of TNF-α on neurons with long exposures to high doses of TNF-α, which is not pathophysiologically relevant. We characterized the rapid effects of TNF-α on basal respiration, ATP production, and maximal respiration using pathophysiologically relevant, post-stroke concentrations of TNF-α. We observed a reduction in mitochondrial function as early as 1.5 h after exposure to low doses of TNF-α, followed by a decrease in cell viability in HT-22 cells and primary neurons. Subsequently, we used the HT-22 cell line to determine the mechanism by which TNF-α causes a rapid and profound reduction in mitochondrial function. Pre-treating with TNF-R1 antibody, but not TNF-R2 antibody, ameliorated the neurotoxic effects of TNF-α, indicating that TNF-α exerts its neurotoxic effects through TNF-R1. We observed an increase in caspase 8 activity and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential after exposure to TNF-α which resulted in a release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. These novel findings indicate for the first time that an acute exposure to pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of TNF-α has neurotoxic effects mediated by a rapid impairment of mitochondrial function. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.