Center for Automation and Robotics UPM

Torrejón del Rey, Spain

Center for Automation and Robotics UPM

Torrejón del Rey, Spain
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Montes H.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Technological University of Panama | Mena L.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Armada M.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Industrial Robot | Year: 2017

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to introduce a hexapod walking robot specifically designed for applications in humanitarian demining, intended to operate autonomously for several hours. To this end, the paper presents an experimental study for the evaluation of its energy efficiency. Design/methodology/approach: First, the interest of using a walking robot for detection and localization of anti-personnel landmines is described, followed by the description of the mechanical system and the control architecture of the hexapod robot. Second, the energy efficiency of the hexapod robot is assessed to demonstrate its autonomy for performing humanitarian demining tasks. To achieve this, the power consumed by the robot is measured and logged, with a number of different payloads placed on-board (always including the scanning manipulator arm assembled on the robot front end), during the execution of a discontinuous gait on flat terrain. Findings: The hexapod walking robot has demonstrated low energy consumption when it is carrying out several locomotion cycles with different loads on it, which is fundamental to have a desired autonomy. It should be considered that the robot has a mass of about 250 kg and that it has been loaded with additional masses of up to 170 kg during the experiments, with a consumption of mean power of 72 W, approximately. Originality/value: This work provides insight on the use of a walking robot for humanitarian demining tasks, which has high stability and an autonomy of about 3 hours for a robot with high mass and high payload. In addition, the robot can be supervised and controlled remotely, which is an added value when it is working in the field. © Emerald Publishing Limited.


Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Armada M.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2017

This paper proposes a multisensory system for the detection and localization of peripheral subcutaneous veins, as a first step for achieving automatic robotic insertion of catheters in the near future. The multisensory system is based on the combination of a SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared) camera, a TOF (Time-Of-Flight) camera and a NIR (Near Infrared) lighting source. The associated algorithm consists of two main parts: one devoted to the features extraction from the SWIR image, and another envisaged for the registration of the range data provided by the TOF camera, with the SWIR image and the results of the peripheral veins detection. In this way, the detected subcutaneous veins are mapped onto the 3D reconstructed surface, providing a full representation of the region of interest for the automatic catheter insertion. Several experimental tests were carried out in order to evaluate the capabilities of the presented approach. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the solution. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Salinas C.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Technological University of Panama | Sarria J.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

The motivation of this research was to explore the feasibility of detecting and locating fruits from different kinds of crops in natural scenarios. To this end, a unique, modular and easily adaptable multisensory system and a set of associated pre-processing algorithms are proposed. The offered multisensory rig combines a high resolution colour camera and a multispectral system for the detection of fruits, as well as for the discrimination of the different elements of the plants, and a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) camera that provides fast acquisition of distances enabling the localisation of the targets in the coordinate space. A controlled lighting system completes the set-up, increasing its flexibility for being used in different working conditions. The pre-processing algorithms designed for the proposed multisensory system include a pixel-based classification algorithm that labels areas of interest that belong to fruits and a registration algorithm that combines the results of the aforementioned classification algorithm with the data provided by the TOF camera for the 3D reconstruction of the desired regions. Several experimental tests have been carried out in outdoors conditions in order to validate the capabilities of the proposed system. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Technological University of Panama | Armada M.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Salinas C.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Technological University of Panama | Fernandez G.,Simon Bolivar University of Venezuela | And 2 more authors.
Robotica | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a novel design of a reconfigurable humanoid robot head, based on biological likeness of human being so that the humanoid robot could agreeably interact with people in various everyday tasks. The proposed humanoid head has a modular and adaptive structural design and is equipped with three main components: frame, neck motion system and omnidirectional stereovision system modules. The omnidirectional stereovision system module being the last module, a motivating contribution with regard to other computer vision systems implemented in former humanoids, it opens new research possibilities for achieving human-like behaviour. A proposal for a real-time catadioptric stereovision system is presented, including stereo geometry for rectifying the system configuration and depth estimation. The methodology for an initial approach for visual servoing tasks is divided into two phases, first related to the robust detection of moving objects, their depth estimation and position calculation, and second the development of attention-based control strategies. Perception capabilities provided allow the extraction of 3D information from a wide range of visions from uncontrolled dynamic environments, and work results are illustrated through a number of experiments. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Apalkov A.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Armada M.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

The hydrosphere contains large amounts of suspended particulate material, including living and non-living material that can be found in different compositions and concentrations, and that can be composed of particles of different sizes. The study of this particulate material along water columns plays a key role in understanding a great variety of biological, chemical, and physical processes. This paper presents the conceptual design of two patented robotic platforms that have been conceived for carrying out studies of water properties at desired depths with very high accuracy in the vertical positioning. One platform has been specially designed for operating near to a reservoir bottom, while the other is intended to be used near the surface. Several experimental tests have been conducted in order to validate the proposed approaches. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Diaz C.E.,Valle de Toluca University | Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics | Armada M.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | De Jesus Garcia Gutierrez F.,Valle de Toluca University
Industrial Robot | Year: 2015

Purpose - This paper aims to provide an insight into recent advancements and developments of robotics for Natural Orifice Transluminal Surgery (NOTES) procedures. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction that highlights the evolution from Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) to NOTES in the medical field, this paper reviews the main robotics systems that have been designed and implemented for MIS and NOTES, summarising their advantages and limitations and remarking the technological challenges and the requirements that still should be addressed and fulfilled. Findings - The state-of-the-art presented in this paper shows that the majority of the platforms created for NOTES are laboratory prototypes, and their performances are still far from being optimal. New solutions are required to solve the problems confronted by the proposed systems such as the limited number of DOFs, the limited resolution, the optimal fixation and stiffening of the instruments for enabling stable and precise operation, the effective transmission of forces to the tip tools, the improvement of the force feedback feeling and the proper visualization and spatial orientation of the surgical field. Advances in robotics can contribute significantly to the development and future implementation of the NOTES procedure. Originality/value - This paper highlights the current trends and challenges ahead in robotics applied to NOTES procedure. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Limon R.C.,University of Tsukuba | Limon R.C.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Zannatha J.M.I.,CINVESTAV | Rodriguez M.A.A.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems | Year: 2013

This paper describes an approach to solve the inverse kinematics problem of humanoid robots whose construction shows a small but non negligible offset at the hip which prevents any purely analytical solution to be developed. Knowing that a purely numerical solution is not feasible due to variable efficiency problems, the proposed one first neglects the offset presence in order to obtain an approximate "solution" by means of an analytical algorithm based on screw theory, and then uses it as the initial condition of a numerical refining procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. In this way, few iterations are needed for any specified attitude, making it possible to implement the algorithm for real-time applications. As a way to show the algorithm's implementation, one case of study is considered throughout the paper, represented by the SILO2 humanoid robot. © 2013 Licensee InTech.


PubMed | Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Image registration for sensor fusion is a valuable technique to acquire 3D and colour information for a scene. Nevertheless, this process normally relies on feature-matching techniques, which is a drawback for combining sensors that are not able to deliver common features. The combination of ToF and RGB cameras is an instance that problem. Typically, the fusion of these sensors is based on the extrinsic parameter computation of the coordinate transformation between the two cameras. This leads to a loss of colour information because of the low resolution of the ToF camera, and sophisticated algorithms are required to minimize this issue. This work proposes a method for sensor registration with non-common features and that avoids the loss of colour information. The depth information is used as a virtual feature for estimating a depth-dependent homography lookup table (Hlut). The homographies are computed within sets of ground control points of 104 images. Since the distance from the control points to the ToF camera are known, the working distance of each element on the Hlut is estimated. Finally, two series of experimental tests have been carried out in order to validate the capabilities of the proposed method.


PubMed | Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Ground bearing capacity has become a relevant concept for site-specific management that aims to protect soil from the compaction and the rutting produced by the indiscriminate use of agricultural and forestry machines. Nevertheless, commonly known techniques for its estimation are cumbersome and time-consuming. In order to alleviate these difficulties, this paper introduces an innovative sensory system based on Visible-Near InfraRed (VIS-NIR), Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) and Long-Wave InfraRed (LWIR) imagery and a sequential algorithm that combines a registration procedure, a multi-class SVM classifier, a K-means clustering and a linear regression for estimating the ground bearing capacity. To evaluate the feasibility and capabilities of the presented approach, several experimental tests were carried out in a sandy-loam terrain. The proposed solution offers notable benefits such as its non-invasiveness to the soil, its spatial coverage without the need for exhaustive manual measurements and its real time operation. Therefore, it can be very useful in decision making processes that tend to reduce ground damage during agricultural and forestry operations.

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