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Diaz C.E.,Valle de Toluca University | Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics | Armada M.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | De Jesus Garcia Gutierrez F.,Valle de Toluca University
Industrial Robot | Year: 2015

Purpose - This paper aims to provide an insight into recent advancements and developments of robotics for Natural Orifice Transluminal Surgery (NOTES) procedures. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction that highlights the evolution from Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) to NOTES in the medical field, this paper reviews the main robotics systems that have been designed and implemented for MIS and NOTES, summarising their advantages and limitations and remarking the technological challenges and the requirements that still should be addressed and fulfilled. Findings - The state-of-the-art presented in this paper shows that the majority of the platforms created for NOTES are laboratory prototypes, and their performances are still far from being optimal. New solutions are required to solve the problems confronted by the proposed systems such as the limited number of DOFs, the limited resolution, the optimal fixation and stiffening of the instruments for enabling stable and precise operation, the effective transmission of forces to the tip tools, the improvement of the force feedback feeling and the proper visualization and spatial orientation of the surgical field. Advances in robotics can contribute significantly to the development and future implementation of the NOTES procedure. Originality/value - This paper highlights the current trends and challenges ahead in robotics applied to NOTES procedure. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Limon R.C.,University of Tsukuba | Limon R.C.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Zannatha J.M.I.,CINVESTAV | Rodriguez M.A.A.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems | Year: 2013

This paper describes an approach to solve the inverse kinematics problem of humanoid robots whose construction shows a small but non negligible offset at the hip which prevents any purely analytical solution to be developed. Knowing that a purely numerical solution is not feasible due to variable efficiency problems, the proposed one first neglects the offset presence in order to obtain an approximate "solution" by means of an analytical algorithm based on screw theory, and then uses it as the initial condition of a numerical refining procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. In this way, few iterations are needed for any specified attitude, making it possible to implement the algorithm for real-time applications. As a way to show the algorithm's implementation, one case of study is considered throughout the paper, represented by the SILO2 humanoid robot. © 2013 Licensee InTech. Source


Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Technological University of Panama | Armada M.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Salinas C.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Technological University of Panama | Fernandez G.,Simon Bolivar University of Venezuela | And 2 more authors.
Robotica | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a novel design of a reconfigurable humanoid robot head, based on biological likeness of human being so that the humanoid robot could agreeably interact with people in various everyday tasks. The proposed humanoid head has a modular and adaptive structural design and is equipped with three main components: frame, neck motion system and omnidirectional stereovision system modules. The omnidirectional stereovision system module being the last module, a motivating contribution with regard to other computer vision systems implemented in former humanoids, it opens new research possibilities for achieving human-like behaviour. A proposal for a real-time catadioptric stereovision system is presented, including stereo geometry for rectifying the system configuration and depth estimation. The methodology for an initial approach for visual servoing tasks is divided into two phases, first related to the robust detection of moving objects, their depth estimation and position calculation, and second the development of attention-based control strategies. Perception capabilities provided allow the extraction of 3D information from a wide range of visions from uncontrolled dynamic environments, and work results are illustrated through a number of experiments. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source


Salinas C.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Fernandez R.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM | Montes H.,Technological University of Panama | Armada M.,Center for Automation and Robotics UPM
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Image registration for sensor fusion is a valuable technique to acquire 3D and colour information for a scene. Nevertheless, this process normally relies on feature-matching techniques, which is a drawback for combining sensors that are not able to deliver common features. The combination of ToF and RGB cameras is an instance that problem. Typically, the fusion of these sensors is based on the extrinsic parameter computation of the coordinate transformation between the two cameras. This leads to a loss of colour information because of the low resolution of the ToF camera, and sophisticated algorithms are required to minimize this issue. This work proposes a method for sensor registration with non-common features and that avoids the loss of colour information. The depth information is used as a virtual feature for estimating a depth-dependent homography lookup table (Hlut). The homographies are computed within sets of ground control points of 104 images. Since the distance from the control points to the ToF camera are known, the working distance of each element on the Hlut is estimated. Finally, two series of experimental tests have been carried out in order to validate the capabilities of the proposed method. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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