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Becher-Deichsel A.,Gynecology and Andrology | Aurich J.E.,Gynecology and Andrology | Schrammel N.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Dupre G.,Opthalmology

The objective of the study was to describe the feasibility of a glove port technique for laparoscopic-assisted surgical treatment of canine pyometra. In this retrospective case series, a total of 10 female dogs (median age 7 years, range 5.5-10.5 years; median weight 37.0 kg, range 12.9-64.0 kg) with pyometra were included. A multiaccess port was created from a surgical glove attached to an Alexis wound retractor and placed in the ventral midline between the middle and caudal third of the distance between umbilicus and pubic rim. A vessel sealing device was used for transection of the ovarian pedicle. The port size was selected on the basis of maximum uterine diameter determined by ultrasound. Median incision length was 5.0 cm (range 3.1-7.7 cm) for a maximum uterine diameter of 4.0 cm (range 2.0-7.0 cm). Median surgical time was 57 minutes (range 48-65 minutes). No case had to be converted to open celiotomy. Complications included one case of minor, self-limiting splenic trauma by the endoscope. In eight dogs, the distended uterine horns endangered safe access to the ovarian pedicle, and the vessel sealing device was inserted through a second cannula placed periumbilically. Extension of the original incision was necessary to exteriorize organs in two dogs. All dogs recovered quickly and were discharged either on the day of surgery or 1 day thereafter. In conclusion, a surgical glove port technique in combination with an Alexis wound retractor is feasible for surgical laparoscopic treatment of canine pyometra up to a diameter of 7 cm. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Schafer-Somi S.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Frohlich T.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Schwendenwein I.,Central Laboratory
Reproduction in Domestic Animals

Contents: In dogs, diagnosis of incomplete ejaculation and azoospermia can be made by measuring the activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) in seminal plasma. However, even though upper cut-off value of 5000IU/l is given in the literature, results by different assays may vary considerably. Furthermore, no data exist concerning the stability of the enzyme during storage of frozen seminal plasma, and no recommendations for pre-analytic dilutions can be found. During the present study, we compared results from a conventional large scale wet chemistry analyzer to a widely used dry chemistry point of care system (POC) and established a best practice for pre-analytical dilutions. Furthermore, stability of enzyme activities in seminal plasma during storage at -18°C for 24h was evaluated. The average activity of AP in the 2nd fraction of normal ejaculates measured by Reflotron® was 107328 IU/l. After 24h of frozen storage, activities did not differ significantly (96844 IU/l, p>0.05). Fresh and frozen samples were analysed in parallel by the POC and conventional chemistry analyser, and the results compared that did not reveal a significant difference (p>0.05). A dilution of seminal plasma with physiologic saline 1:100 prior to analysis was sufficient for the qualitative information whether AP activity is below or above 5000IU/l. Present data show that AP measurement by a POC dry chemistry system is sufficiently accurate in diluted seminal plasma for the diagnosis of azoospermia and that seminal plasma can be stored frozen for 24h before analysis. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Aurich C.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Schneider J.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer
Animal Reproduction Science

In the equine species, sex determination of the conceptus is of growing interest for the breeding industry. In horses, the sex ratio of the offspring depends on changes in body condition of the mother at conception and under natural conditions may thus markedly deviate from an expected 1:1 ratio. Insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa allows a pronounced shift of the sex ratio but at present pregnancy rates are low and vary considerably under field conditions. In equine embryo transfer programmes, sex determination in embryos before transfer via genetic methods is a promising approach with high reliability. In ongoing pregnancies, fetal sex can be determined in utero by transrectal or transabdominal ultrasound between days 57 and 220 after ovulation, but experience is required to achieve satisfying accuracy. Recently, genetic sexing via identification of circulating cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation has been successfully performed in the last three months of pregnancy. Development of this technique may also allow fetal sex determination at earlier stages of pregnancy. Further research is required to allow for techniques that enable sex determination in equine embryos as well as in ongoing pregnancies under field conditions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Aurich C.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Budik S.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer
Reproduction in Domestic Animals

Contents: Although the horse is a seasonal breeding species, a considerable number of mares continue to cycle throughout autumn and winter. Slower equine embryo growth during the non-breeding season has been hypothesized, and because smaller embryo size is beneficial for cryopreservation, embryo collection outside the breeding season could be an interesting approach for the production of frozen horse embryos. In the present retrospective study, we have therefore analysed embryo recovery rates and conceptus size in mares (n = 30) throughout the year. Conceptus diameter was either size determined after collection with a microscopic scale (day 7-10 after ovulation) or determined by transrectal ultrasound immediately before collection (day 11-14 after ovulation). In 19 of the 30 mares (63%), ovulatory cycles were detected throughout the year. A total of 352 embryo collections with a mean recovery rate of 64.2% were performed and not affected by season. The size was analysed in a total of 165 conceptuses. Conceptus diameter significantly increased (p < 0.001) with day of pregnancy (e.g. day 7: 0.3 ± 0.04, day 10: 4.1 ± 0.2, day 12: 10.1 ± 0.5, day 14: 17.4 ± 0.9 mm), but was not influenced by season. In conclusion, successful embryo collection is possible throughout the year in spontaneously cyclic mares. Under these conditions, neither collection rates nor embryo growth appeared to be affected by season. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Schafer-Somi S.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Kaya D.,Kafkas University | Gultiken N.,Ondokuz Mayis University | Aslan S.,Ankara University
Reproduction in Domestic Animals

Contents: Pre-pubertal gonadectomy in dogs and cats is still controversially discussed because some consequences cause health problems. Nevertheless, postponement of puberty, that is, prevention of an increase in sexual hormones and thereby prevention of their manifold effects, is of major importance, not only in controlling overpopulation but also to preserve the genetic base for future breeding stock and pets. Therefore, alternatives for surgical suppression of fertility in pre-pubertal animals were critically reviewed. As a promising alternative, the slow-release GnRH agonist deslorelin and other GnRH analogues have been investigated. In female dogs and cats, puberty could be significantly postponed without initial flare-up effect and without disturbance of body development. First trials to delay puberty in female and male cats by application of a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant 24 h after birth so far are promising. In female dogs, a previous investigation showed that when the implant was inserted at the age of 4 months, the initial flare-up effect was prevented. Body development was normal in the studies reviewed here, and with the 9.4-mg implant, puberty was significantly delayed until the age of 21 months or older. In one study, bitches either received a 4.7- or a 9.4-mg implant at the age of 4 months and the epiphyses were mostly closed before the time of first oestrus. Using a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant in pre-pubertal male dogs significantly postponed puberty, and age at puberty was >2 years when a 9.4-mg implant was used. However, further investigations are required, especially concerning the effect of different GnRH agonist dosages and resorption rates on the duration of postponement of puberty as well as long-term effects in both dogs and cats. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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