Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer

Vienna, Austria

Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer

Vienna, Austria
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PubMed | Gynecology and Andrology, Opthalmology and Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The objective of the study was to describe the feasibility of a glove port technique for laparoscopic-assisted surgical treatment of canine pyometra. In this retrospective case series, a total of 10 female dogs (median age 7years, range 5.5-10.5years; median weight 37.0kg, range 12.9-64.0kg) with pyometra were included. A multiaccess port was created from a surgical glove attached to an Alexis wound retractor and placed in the ventral midline between the middle and caudal third of the distance between umbilicus and pubic rim. A vessel sealing device was used for transection of the ovarian pedicle. The port size was selected on the basis of maximum uterine diameter determined by ultrasound. Median incision length was 5.0cm (range 3.1-7.7cm) for a maximum uterine diameter of 4.0cm (range 2.0-7.0cm). Median surgical time was 57minutes (range 48-65minutes). No case had to be converted to open celiotomy. Complications included one case of minor, self-limiting splenic trauma by the endoscope. In eight dogs, the distended uterine horns endangered safe access to the ovarian pedicle, and the vessel sealing device was inserted through a second cannula placed periumbilically. Extension of the original incision was necessary to exteriorize organs in two dogs. All dogs recovered quickly and were discharged either on the day of surgery or 1day thereafter. In conclusion, a surgical glove port technique in combination with an Alexis wound retractor is feasible for surgical laparoscopic treatment of canine pyometra up to a diameter of 7cm.

PubMed | Gynecology and Andrology, Clinical Unit for Heard Health Management in Ruminants, Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer and Kremesberg Research and Teaching Farm
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

This study tested the hypothesis of gestational age affecting fetal cardiac activity and the stress response at birth. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability variables, SD of the beat-to-beat interval and root mean square of successive beat-to-beat differences, and postnatal salivary cortisol concentration were studied in calves born at term (Term, n=7, gestation length 286.32.1days) or after induction of parturition (Preterm, n=7, gestation length 279.60.2days). Observation periods covered the last month of gestation (phase A), the last hours before birth including the first stage of labor (phase B), and the neonatal period (phase C). Fetal HR decreased in phase A (P<0.001) and did not differ between groups. During phase B, HR increased (P<0.05) and was higher in Preterm than in Term calves in phases B (P<0.05) and C (P<0.01). In Term calves, heart rate variability increased from Day 6 until birth (P<0.05). At birth, SD of the beat-to-beat interval was higher in Term than in Preterm calves (P<0.01). On Day 1 after birth (phase C), HR accelerations were more frequent in Term than Preterm calves (P<0.01), whereas decelerations were more frequent in Preterm calves (P<0.05). Cortisol concentration increased postnatally (P<0.001) and was correlated with gestation length (r0.68, P<0.01). Because of a certain degree of immaturity, the ability to cope with the stress of birth may be impaired in calves born 1week before term.

PubMed | Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer and Vetmeduni Vienna
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

Increasing day length in spring stimulates reproductive functions in horses. In this study, we have analysed the effect of artificial long days on the quality of cooled-stored and cryopreserved semen in Shetland stallions. Stallions of the treatment group (AL, n = 8) were exposed to 16 h light and 8h darkness from 15th December to 20th March while control stallions (CON, n = 7) were kept under natural photoperiod. Semen was collected once weekly and processed for cooled-storage and cryopreservation once per month. Total and progressive motility and percentage of membrane intact spermatozoa were analysed at 24, 48 and 72 h of cooled-storage and after freezing-thawing, respectively. Total and progressive motility and membrane integrity decreased during cooled-storage for 72 h in each month and both groups (p < 0.001). All these parameters were lower in CON versus AL stallions (p < 0.05) and the decrease was more pronounced in group CON (storage time x group p < 0.05). Differences between groups decreased throughout the observation period from January (p < 0.05 between groups) to July (e.g. total motility after 72 h of cooled-storage in January for group AL 80 3 and group CON 49 12%, respective values in July, 83 2 and 72 6%). Neither total and progressive motility nor percentage of membrane-intact and morphologically defect spermatozoa in frozen-thawed semen differed between groups and months. In conclusion, motility of cooled-stored semen was reduced in January and increased in stallions kept under a long day light programme for at least 30 days.

PubMed | Kremesberg Research and Teaching Farm, Gynecology and Andrology, Clinical Unit for Heard Health Management in Ruminants and Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

Increased cortisol release in parturient cows may either represent a stress response or is part of the endocrine changes that initiate calving. Acute stress elicits an increase in heart rate and decrease in heart rate variability (HRV). Therefore, we analyzed cortisol concentration, heart rate and HRV variables standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval (SDRR) and root mean square of successive beat-to-beat intervals (RMSSD) in dairy cows allowed to calve spontaneously (SPON, n = 6) or with PGF2-induced preterm parturition (PG, n = 6). We hypothesized that calving is a stressor, but induced parturition is less stressful than term calving. Saliva collection for cortisol analysis and electrocardiogram recordings for heart rate and HRV analysis were performed from 32 hours before to 18.3 0.7 hours after delivery. Cortisol concentration increased in SPON and PG cows, peaked 15 minutes after delivery (P < 0.001) but was higher in SPON versus PG cows (P < 0.001) during and within 2 hours after calving. Heart rate peaked during the expulsive phase of labor and was higher in SPON than in PG cows (time group P < 0.01). The standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval and RMSSD peaked at the end of the expulsive phase of labor (P < 0.001), indicating high vagal activity. Standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval (P < 0.01) and RMSSD (P < 0.05) were higher in SPON versus PG cows. Based on physiological stress parameters, calving is perceived as stressful but expulsion of the calf is associated with a transiently increased vagal tone which may enhance uterine contractility.

Palme N.,Veterinary Clinic Ganserndorf | Becher A.C.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Merkl M.,Clinic for Obstetrics | Glosmann M.,Vetcore Facility for Research | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2014

Contents: The mammalian sperm membrane undergoes cholesterol efflux during maturation and fertilization. Although ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are known to transport cholesterol through cell membranes in other organs, their presence in canine testis, epididymis and sperm has not been proven to date. Hence, the aim of the present study was to localize the ABC transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in canine testicular and epididymidal tissue as well as in spermatozoa membranes. To this end, semen samples from 12 dogs as well as testicles and epididymides of four young and healthy dogs were prepared for immunohistochemistry, respectively. Capacitation and acrosome reaction (AR) were induced in aliquots of the semen samples before immunostaining to assess changes in the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Evaluation by confocal microscopy revealed the presence of both ABCA1 and ABCG1 in canine testicles and of ABCA1 in the epididymides. In spermatozoa, only ABCA1 immunoreactivity was detected, mainly in the region of the acrosome and midpiece. After induction of capacitation, ABCA1 signal persisted in the acrosome but disappeared after AR, indicating a loss of ABCA1 with the loss of the acrosome. We conclude that ABCA1 and ABCG1 are expressed in canine testis, whereas only ABCA1 is expressed in epididymis and spermatozoa membrane, both transporters probably contributing to the regulation of membrane cholesterol content. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Schafer-Somi S.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Frohlich T.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Schwendenwein I.,Central Laboratory
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2013

Contents: In dogs, diagnosis of incomplete ejaculation and azoospermia can be made by measuring the activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) in seminal plasma. However, even though upper cut-off value of 5000IU/l is given in the literature, results by different assays may vary considerably. Furthermore, no data exist concerning the stability of the enzyme during storage of frozen seminal plasma, and no recommendations for pre-analytic dilutions can be found. During the present study, we compared results from a conventional large scale wet chemistry analyzer to a widely used dry chemistry point of care system (POC) and established a best practice for pre-analytical dilutions. Furthermore, stability of enzyme activities in seminal plasma during storage at -18°C for 24h was evaluated. The average activity of AP in the 2nd fraction of normal ejaculates measured by Reflotron® was 107328 IU/l. After 24h of frozen storage, activities did not differ significantly (96844 IU/l, p>0.05). Fresh and frozen samples were analysed in parallel by the POC and conventional chemistry analyser, and the results compared that did not reveal a significant difference (p>0.05). A dilution of seminal plasma with physiologic saline 1:100 prior to analysis was sufficient for the qualitative information whether AP activity is below or above 5000IU/l. Present data show that AP measurement by a POC dry chemistry system is sufficiently accurate in diluted seminal plasma for the diagnosis of azoospermia and that seminal plasma can be stored frozen for 24h before analysis. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Aurich C.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Schneider J.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

In the equine species, sex determination of the conceptus is of growing interest for the breeding industry. In horses, the sex ratio of the offspring depends on changes in body condition of the mother at conception and under natural conditions may thus markedly deviate from an expected 1:1 ratio. Insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa allows a pronounced shift of the sex ratio but at present pregnancy rates are low and vary considerably under field conditions. In equine embryo transfer programmes, sex determination in embryos before transfer via genetic methods is a promising approach with high reliability. In ongoing pregnancies, fetal sex can be determined in utero by transrectal or transabdominal ultrasound between days 57 and 220 after ovulation, but experience is required to achieve satisfying accuracy. Recently, genetic sexing via identification of circulating cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation has been successfully performed in the last three months of pregnancy. Development of this technique may also allow fetal sex determination at earlier stages of pregnancy. Further research is required to allow for techniques that enable sex determination in equine embryos as well as in ongoing pregnancies under field conditions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Aurich C.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Budik S.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2015

Contents: Although the horse is a seasonal breeding species, a considerable number of mares continue to cycle throughout autumn and winter. Slower equine embryo growth during the non-breeding season has been hypothesized, and because smaller embryo size is beneficial for cryopreservation, embryo collection outside the breeding season could be an interesting approach for the production of frozen horse embryos. In the present retrospective study, we have therefore analysed embryo recovery rates and conceptus size in mares (n = 30) throughout the year. Conceptus diameter was either size determined after collection with a microscopic scale (day 7-10 after ovulation) or determined by transrectal ultrasound immediately before collection (day 11-14 after ovulation). In 19 of the 30 mares (63%), ovulatory cycles were detected throughout the year. A total of 352 embryo collections with a mean recovery rate of 64.2% were performed and not affected by season. The size was analysed in a total of 165 conceptuses. Conceptus diameter significantly increased (p < 0.001) with day of pregnancy (e.g. day 7: 0.3 ± 0.04, day 10: 4.1 ± 0.2, day 12: 10.1 ± 0.5, day 14: 17.4 ± 0.9 mm), but was not influenced by season. In conclusion, successful embryo collection is possible throughout the year in spontaneously cyclic mares. Under these conditions, neither collection rates nor embryo growth appeared to be affected by season. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Schafer-Somi S.,Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer | Kaya D.,Kafkas University | Gultiken N.,Ondokuz Mayis University | Aslan S.,Ankara University
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2014

Contents: Pre-pubertal gonadectomy in dogs and cats is still controversially discussed because some consequences cause health problems. Nevertheless, postponement of puberty, that is, prevention of an increase in sexual hormones and thereby prevention of their manifold effects, is of major importance, not only in controlling overpopulation but also to preserve the genetic base for future breeding stock and pets. Therefore, alternatives for surgical suppression of fertility in pre-pubertal animals were critically reviewed. As a promising alternative, the slow-release GnRH agonist deslorelin and other GnRH analogues have been investigated. In female dogs and cats, puberty could be significantly postponed without initial flare-up effect and without disturbance of body development. First trials to delay puberty in female and male cats by application of a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant 24 h after birth so far are promising. In female dogs, a previous investigation showed that when the implant was inserted at the age of 4 months, the initial flare-up effect was prevented. Body development was normal in the studies reviewed here, and with the 9.4-mg implant, puberty was significantly delayed until the age of 21 months or older. In one study, bitches either received a 4.7- or a 9.4-mg implant at the age of 4 months and the epiphyses were mostly closed before the time of first oestrus. Using a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant in pre-pubertal male dogs significantly postponed puberty, and age at puberty was >2 years when a 9.4-mg implant was used. However, further investigations are required, especially concerning the effect of different GnRH agonist dosages and resorption rates on the duration of postponement of puberty as well as long-term effects in both dogs and cats. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

PubMed | Obstetrics and Center for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer
Type: | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2017

A decrease in fertility of equine semen during cooled-storage so far has mainly been attributed to changes in sperm membrane function. In the present study we hypothesized that cooled-storage also changes the sperm DNA methylation level. For this purpose, semen was collected from 10 fertile stallions and processed for cooled-storage at 5C. Two final concentrations, 5010

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