Dehradun, India
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Mohan M.,P.A. College | Haider S.Z.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Sharma A.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Seth R.,P.A. College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2012

Objective: To examine the composition of Cinnamomum tamala and Murraya koenigii essential oils and their antimicrobial activities against nine microbial strains. Methods: Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of two spice trees and were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils were also tested for their antimicrobial activity using broth micro dilution method. Results: Cinnamaldehyde (37.85%) and cis-linalool oxide (29.99%) were the main components characterized in the oil of C. tamala, whereas α-pinene (39.93%), sabinene (13.31%) and trans-caryophyllene (9.02%) detected as the major constituents in M. koenigii oil. C. tamala oil exhibited significant antifungal activity and satisfactory antibacterial activity, while lesser antimicrobial activity was observed in M. koenigii oil. Conclusions: The present study suggested that C. tamala oil was more effective against bacterial and fungal strains as compared with M. koenghii oil. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


PubMed | Dav Pg College, Doon University and Center for Aromatic Plants
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacognosy research | Year: 2014

The genus Artemisia is important due to its medicinal properties as well as vital aroma compounds of commercial value.The aim of the study was to explore the potential of the essential oil of Artemisia indica wildly growing in Uttarakhand.The aerial parts of Artemisia indica Willd. (Asteraceae), collected from wild growing habitat of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand (north of India) at full flowering stage were hydro-distilled and gave pale yellow oil with the yield of 0.8% (v/w). The obtained essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and identified 32 components, amounting 95.42% of the oil.Among detected compounds, the principal component was found to be davanone (30.80%), followed by -pinene (15.30%) and germacrene-D (5.82%).To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on A. indica from Himalayan region of India, which detected davanone as major component. The species, collected from a specific location, can be explored for isolation of davanone for its industrial utilization and as alternate source of Artemisia pallens, which have already established commercial value.


Seth R.,DAV PG College | Zafar Haider S.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Mohan M.,DAV PG College
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2014

This review highlights the pharmacology, biological properties and traditional uses of a very important folklore medicine, known as 'Keeda jadi'. In nature, it is found at high altitudes of 3500-5000 m on the high Himalayan mountains in India, Nepal and Tibet. It is an entomo-fungal combination of a larva of small moth, Hepialus armoricanus and a parasite fungus Cordyceps sinensis. Cordyceps is best known medicine for increasing physical stamina and sexual functions. It has been traditionally used to treat patients with heart disease and also shown to increase liver, kidney and lung functions. C. sinensis is unique and valuable for its medicinal properties. Many studies support that it has diverse biological activities and pharmacological potential, while it is not extracted sustainable in planned way. So, awareness and scientific knowledge is very necessary for the future prospects of Cordyceps such as conservation, sustainable harvesting, cultivation practices and trade.


Mohan M.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Haider S.Z.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Andola H.C.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Purohit V.K.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2011

The environmental problems caused by overuse of pesticides have been the matter of concern for both scientists and public in recent years. It has been estimated that about 2.5 million tons of pesticides are used on crops each year and the worldwide damage caused by pesticides reaches $100 billion annually. Natural products are an excellent alternative to synthetic pesticides as a means to reduce negative impacts to human health and the environment. The move towards green chemistry processes and the continuing need for developing new crop protection tools with novel modes of action makes discovery and commercialization of natural products as green pesticides are good alternatives to chemical pesticides. Green pesticides are eco-friendly, economic, target-specific and biodegradable. Many plant essential oils show a broad spectrum of activity against pest insects and plant pathogenic fungi ranging from insecticidal, antifeedant, repellent, oviposition deterrent, growth regulatory and antivector activities. This special regulatory status combined with the wide availability of essential oils from the flavor and fragrance industries, has made it possible to fast track commercialization of essential oil-based pesticides. Though well received by consumers for use against home and garden pests, these "green pesticides" can also prove effective in agricultural situations, particularly for organic food production. Further, while resistance development continues to be an issue for many synthetic pesticides, it is likely that resistance will develop more slowly to essential oil based pesticides owing to the complex mixtures of constituents that characterize pesticides based on plant essential oils or their constituents have demonstrated efficacy against a range of stored product pests, domestic pests, blood feeding pests etc. These features indicate that pesticides based on plant essential oils could be used in a variety of ways to control a large number of pests. Some essential oil constituents, for example, limonene, pulegone, citronellal and 1,8-cineole are active ingredients of commercially available flea shampoos, mosquito repellents and different agrochemicals.


Gwari G.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Bhandar U.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Andola H.C.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Lohani H.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Chauhan N.,Center for Aromatic Plants
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2012

Carum carvi Linn. (Caraway) is an established promising source of essential oils. The variation in the oil content and essential oil composition of its cultivated crop in higher hills of Uttarakhand Himalaya was evaluated. Samples were collected from Mereng (Chamoli), Parsari (Chamoli), Kapkot (Bageshwar), Ganeshpur (Chamoli) and Chakrata (Dehra Dun) for quality evaluation. Oil content of seeds varies from 3.3-4.8 per cent. Quality was determined by GC and GC-MS and the results revealed that all the farmer's field samples contained carvone as a major components and maximum percentage was found in the sample collected from Chakrata (Dehra Dun). The second major constituent was found to be DL-limonene which varies among the samples. Other useful components were also found in the essential oil of caraway like limonene oxide, trans-dihydro-carvone and β-mycene. It is implicated that seeds of caraway can be taken from such areas for commercial utilization of essential oil.


Lohani H.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Chauhan N.,Center for Aromatic Plants | Andola H.C.,Center for Aromatic Plants
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2012

Dry flowering parts of Tanacetum nubigenum and T. gracile Collected from alpine area of Uttärakhand and hydro-distilled for essential oil. T. nubigenum showed higher essential oil yield (0.64%) as compared to T. gracile (0.1%). Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS analysis revealed a total of 30 compounds in T. nubigenum, and 38 compounds in T. gracile. The major compounds in the essential oil of T. nubigenum were 1,8 cineole (30.0%), followed by sabinene (15.6%), eudesmol (11.2%) and camphor (8.0%), whereas T. gracile possess a-bisabolol (28.0%), chamazulene (8.4%), a-phellandrene (6.9%), germacrene-D (4.7%) and eudesmol (4.3%) as major constituents The results of the present study highlight the potential of the species and its constituents in the industry for preparation of incense (doop) and fragrance. © 2012 The National Academy of Sciences India.


PubMed | Center for Aromatic Plants
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of oleo science | Year: 2015

The repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oils of Tanacetum nubigenum Wallich. ex DC collected from three different habitats (Gothing, Burphu and Glacier) of Uttarakhand Himalayas, India named as TNG, TNB and TNM respectively, were investigated against the adults of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Among the three samples tested, TNG was found to more potent exhibiting more repellent effect towards the insects and with LC50 values by fumigant bioassay were 13.23 and 8.32 l per 0.25 L air at 24 and 48 h exposure of insects to the essential oil respectively. In between other two oil samples, TNM was superior in potency showed LC50 value of 14.22 (24 h) & 8.82 l per 0.25 L air (48 h). During in vivo study all the essential oil samples significantly protected 500 g of wheat grains for 6 months from insect infestation as compared to non fumigated grains and order of efficacy was TNG>TNM>TNB. There were no side effects of essential oils on germination rate of grains (<85%) exposed for 6 months after fumigation. The present study suggests that essential oil of T. nubigenum can be explored as novel natural fumigants for the control of stored product insects.


PubMed | Center for Aromatic Plants
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, in order to determine the effects of phenological stages on herbage yield and quality of oil in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Plants were harvested in five phenological stages, i.e. early vegetative, late vegetative, flower initiation, full bloom, and fruit set stages. Results showed the significant effects of phenological stages on herbage, yield, and quality of oregano. Harvesting at full bloom stage showed better results in terms of herbage and oil yield. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC/MS. Thymol content was rich in all the stages (46.90-62.26%) followed by -terpinene (1.11-11.75%) and p-cymene (3.11-5.32%).


PubMed | Center for Aromatic Plants
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2013

The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34%) followed by -thujone (9.91%) and 1,8-cineole (6.57%), Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%), whereas ar-curcumene (8.54%) was identified as a second major compound followed by -thujone (4.04%). Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes.


PubMed | Center for Aromatic Plants
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to investigate the various chemical components present in the volatile oil of the leaf of Cupressus torulosa and to find variation of essential oil components among the populations. Twenty-two, 17 and 20 compounds were identified with 95.45, 95.45 and 91.45% in Kalsi, Joshimath and Jeharikhal, respectively were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantify by gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The major compound identified was -pinene in all the populations and it varied between 30.30 and 34.26%. Results of the study stated that -pinene, - 3-carene, limonene and sabinene components were detected in high concentration, thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

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