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Bakker J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Bakker J.,Center for Archaeological science | Kaniewski D.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Kaniewski D.,Center for Archaeological science | And 6 more authors.

A well-dated pollen diagram from Gravgaz marsh, near the archaeological site of Sagalassos (western Taurus Mountains, Turkey), provides the first detailed record of vegetation change in southwest Turkey during the last two millennia. A newly developed numerical analysis disentangles the climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation and reveals for the first time for southwest Turkey the timing and influence of late-Holocene climate change. Results show that sudden vegetation changes, driven by changes in moisture availability, co-occurred with well-defined European climate shifts. A trend towards dry conditions, from c. ad 640 to 940, coincides with the cold early Middle Ages in Europe. During this period, human presence in the region diminished and agricultural activity switched focus from crop cultivation to pastoralism while signs of cereal cultivation temporarily ceased. This period was followed by a return to moister conditions from ad 940 to 1280, coinciding with the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly'. During this period there was a resurgence of human activity in the basin. Another trend towards dry conditions occurred at c. ad 1280, corresponding with the start of the 'Little Ice Age' in Europe and another disappearance of cereal pollen until the present day. The numerical analyses suggest that human impact around Gravgaz during the last two millennia is primarily driven by climatic changes. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Ganio M.,Center for Archaeological science | Boyen S.,Center for Archaeological science | Brems D.,Center for Archaeological science | Scott R.,Center for Archaeological science | And 6 more authors.
Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A

In this study analysis of major elements and Sr-Nd isotopes is performed on 33 colourless glass fragments from two Roman shipwrecks discovered in the Northern Mediterranean Sea, the Iulia Felix (first half of the third century AD) and the Ouest-Embiez (end of the second-beginning of the third century AD). Two compositional groups are defined based upon the major elements analysis, suggesting the use of different raw materials, and possibly the production of the glass samples in two separate factories. Sr-Nd isotopes, promising indicators for provenancing geological resources used as raw materials in glass manufacturing, confirm the compositional groups. The 87Sr/ 86Sr signature is very close to the modern sea water signature (0.7092) for all samples, likely due to the use of shell as glass raw material. The Nd signature further subdivides the compositional groups, suggesting the use of three different sand raw materials for the production of glass. Source

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