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Arockiaraj J.,SRM University | Vanaraja P.,University of Malaya | Easwvaran S.,University of Malaya | Singh A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | And 2 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2012

Chaperonin (MrChap) was identified from a constructed transcriptome dataset of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrChap peptide contains a long chaperone super family domain between 11 and 525. Three chaperone tailless complex polypeptide (TCP-1) signatures are present in the MrChap peptide sequence at 36-48, 57-73 and 85-93. The gene expressions of MrChap in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were examined using qRT-PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrChap gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity. Chaperone activity assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein is an active chaperone. These results suggest that MrChap is potentially involved in the immune responses against viral infection in M. rosenbergii. These findings indicate that the recombinant MrChap protein may be used in immunotherapeutic approaches. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Arockiaraj J.,SRM University | Gnanam A.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Muthukrishnan D.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | Pasupuleti M.,SRM University | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

Caspase 10 (CsCasp10) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater murrel (otherwise called snakehead) Channa striatus. The CsCasp10 is 1838 base pairs (bp) in length and it is encoding 549 amino acid (aa) residues. CsCasp10 amino acid contains two death effector domains (DED) in the N-terminal at 2-77 and 87-154 and it contains caspase family p20 domain (large subunit) and caspase family p10 domain (small subunit) in the C-terminal at 299-425 and 449-536 respectively. Pairwise analysis of CsCasp10 showed the highest sequence similarity (79%) with caspase 10 of Paralichthys olivaceus. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis showed that CsCasp10 is clustered together with other fish caspase 10, formed a sister group with caspase 10 from other lower vertebrates including amphibian, reptile and birds and finally clustered together with higher vertebrates such as mammals. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest CsCasp10 gene expression was noticed in gills and lowest in intestine. Furthermore, the CsCasp10 gene expression in C. striatus was up-regulated in gills by fungus Aphanomyces invadans and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila induction. The proteolytic activity was analyzed using the purified recombinant CsCasp10 protein. The results showed the proteolytic activity of CsCasp10 for caspase 10 substrate was 2.5 units per μg protein. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of CsCasp10 in kidney and spleen induced by A. invadans and A. hydrophila stimulation were analyzed by caspase 10 activity assay kit. All these results showed that CsCasp10 are participated in immunity of C. striatus against A. invadans and A. hydrophila infection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Arockiaraj J.,SRM University | Avin F.A.,University of Malaya | Vanaraja P.,University of Malaya | Easwvaran S.,University of Malaya | And 3 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

NF kappa B inhibitor alpha (MrNFκBI-α) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrNFκBI-α protein contains a long ankyrin repeat region circular domain between 193 and 413 along with its 6 repeats (ankyrin repeat 1,2,3,4,5 and 6). An IκB degradation motif and a putative PEST motif is present at 37-64 and 418-471 of the N- and C-terminal regions of MrNFκBI-α respectively. The gene expressions of MrNFκBI-α in healthy and infectious hematopoietic and hypodermal necrosis virus (IHHNV), poly I:C, Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus faecium injected M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time PCR. The MrNFκBI-α is expressed in all the tissues taken for examination and the highest is observed in hemocytes. The MrNFκBI-α gene expression is strongly up-regulated in hemocytes of prawn after IHHNV, poly I:C, A. hydrophila and E. faecium infection. This result indicates an important role of MrNFκBI-α in M. rosenbergii immune system. This, however, remains to be verified by further studies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Arockiaraj J.,University of Malaya | Easwvaran S.,University of Malaya | Vanaraja P.,University of Malaya | Singh A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates. The major enzyme, phenoloxi-dase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated as MrProAE-III, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1110 base pair (bp) encoding a predicted protein of 370 amino acids including an 22 amino acid signal peptide. The MrProAE-III protein exhibits a characteristic sequence structure of a long serine proteases-trypsin domain and an N- and C-terminal serine proteases-trypsin family histidine active sites, respectively, which together are the characteristics of the clip-serin proteases. Sequence analysis showed that MrProAE-III exhibited the highest amino acid sequence similarity (63%) to a ProAE-III from Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. MrProAE-III mRNA and enzyme activity of MrProAE-III were detectable in all examined tissues, including hepatopancreas, hemocytes, pleopods, walking legs, eye stalk, gill, stomach, intestine, brain and muscle with the highest level of both in hepatopancreas. This is regulated after systemic infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection supporting that it is an immune-responsive gene. These results indicate that MrProAE-III functions in the proPO system and is an important component in the prawn immune system. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Arockiaraj J.,University of Malaya | Easwvaran S.,University of Malaya | Vanaraja P.,University of Malaya | Singh A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

In this study, we have reported a full length of peroxiredoxin (designated MrPrdx) gene, identified from the transcriptome of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrPrdx is 940 base pairs in length, and encodes 186 amino acids. MrPrdx contains a long thioredoxin domain in the amino acid sequence between 34 and 186. The gene expressions of MrPrdx in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. MrPrdx is highly expressed in all the other tissues of M. rosenbergii considered for analysis and the highest in gills. The expression is strongly up-regulated in gills after IHHNV infection. To understand MrPrdx functional properties, the recombinant MrPrdx protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified. A peroxidise activity assay was conducted using recombinant MrPrdx protein at different concentrations. This peroxidises activity showed that the recombinant MrPrdx is a thiol-dependant protein. Additionally, this result showed that recombinant MrPrdx protein, as a secretory protein can remove H 2O 2 and protect DNA damage. This finding leads a possible way to propose the recombinant MrPrdx protein as an effective medicine for reactive oxygen species (ROS) related diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Arockiaraj J.,University of Malaya | Easwvaran S.,University of Malaya | Vanaraja P.,University of Malaya | Singh A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

In this study, we reported a full length of catalase gene (designated as MrCat), identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrCat is 2504 base pairs in length, and encodes 516 amino acids. The MrCat protein contains three domains such as catalase 1 (catalase proximal heme-ligand signature) at 350-358, catalase 2 (catalase proximal active site signature) at 60-76 and catalase 3 (catalase family profile) at 20-499. The mRNA expressions of MrCat in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MrCat is highly expressed in digestive tract and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, hemocyte, hepatopancreas, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated in digestive tract after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCat gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCat existed in high thermal stability and broad spectrum of pH, which showed over 95% enzyme activity between pH 5 and 10.5, and was stable from 40 °C to 70 °C, and exhibited 85-100% enzyme activity from 30 °C to 40 °C. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Arockiaraj J.,University of Malaya | Easwvaran S.,University of Malaya | Vanaraja P.,University of Malaya | Singh A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

Caspase 3c (MrCasp3c) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrCasp3c consisted of 2080 bp nucleotide encoded 521 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 59 kDa. MrCasp3c sequence contains caspase family p20 domain profile and caspase family p10 domain profile at 236-367 and 378-468 respectively. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrCasp3c with the highest expression in haemocyte and the lowest in stomach. The expression of MrCasp3c after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in haemocyte. In addition, MrCasp3c was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The enzyme activity of MrCasp3c was also found to be up-regulated by IHHNV in haemocyte and hepatopancreas tissues. This study suggested that MrCasp3c may be an effector caspase associated with the induction of apoptosis which is potentially involved in the immune defence of M. rosenbergii. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Haniffa M.A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | Shanthi P.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study is to screen antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants (Ocimum sanctum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Tinospora cardifolia,Withinia sominifera, Allium sativum, Terminalia arjuna and Mentha arvensis) against the common fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and phenolic compounds. Among the eight medicinal plant extracts, T.cardifolia and W.sominifera showed a wider spectrum of antibacterial activity and expand least MIC and MBC values against A.hydrophila. All the other herbal extracts showed a moderate antibacterial activity against the test pathogen. The significant antibacterial activity of active extracts were compared with standard antibiotics Kanamycin, Neomycin and Penicillin. The results obtained in the present study suggested that T. cardifolia and W.sominifera can be used for treating diseases caused by A.hydrophila in aquaculture practices.


Arockiaraj J.,University of Malaya | Vanaraja P.,University of Malaya | Easwvaran S.,University of Malaya | Singh A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | And 3 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2011

Arginine kinase-1 (MrAK-1) was sequenced from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrAK-1 consisted of 1068 bp nucleotide encoded 355 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. MrAK-1 sequence contains a potential ATP:guanido phosphotransferases active domain site. The deduced amino acid sequence of MrAK-1 was compared with other 7 homologous arginine kinase (AK) and showed the highest identity (96%) with AK-1 from cherry shrimp Neocaridina denticulate. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrAK-1 with the highest expression in the muscle and the lowest in the eyestalk. The expression of MrAK-1 after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in muscle. In addition, MrAK-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The optimum temperature (30 °C) and pH (8.5) was determined for the enzyme activity assay. MrAK-1 showed significant (P < 0.05) activity towards 10-50 mM ATP concentration. The enzyme activity was inhibited by α-ketoglutarate, glucose and ATP at the concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mM respectively. Conclusively, the findings of this study indicated that MrAK-1 might play an important role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the immune response in shrimps. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Arockiaraj J.,University of Malaya | Vanaraja P.,University of Malaya | Easwvaran S.,University of Malaya | Singh A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Extension | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2011

Apoptosis is genetically programmed cellular killing processes that execute unnecessary or infected cells. It plays an important role in embryogenesis, homeostasis, insect metamorphosis and immunity. Apoptosis inhibitor (MrIAP) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrIAP consisted of 1753 base pair nucleotides encoded 535 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. MrIAP amino acid sequence contains IAP superfamily domain between 5 and 490. The deduced amino acid sequences of the MrIAP were aligned with the other IAP family members. The highest sequence similarity was observed in IAP-5 from ant Camponotus floridanus (67%) followed by IAP from body louse Pediculus humanus corporis (66%) and the lowest (62%) in IAP-5 isoform-5 from common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and IAP-5 from Aedes aegypti. The IAP phylogenetic tree showed that MrIAP closely related to other arthropod blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis, formed a sister group with IAP from a hemichordate acorn worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii and finally clustered together with IAPs from fish groups. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that significantly (P < 0.05) highest expression was noticed in hepatopancreas and significantly (P < 0.05) lowest expression in pleopods. Based on the results of gene expression analysis, MrIAP mRNA transcription in M. rosenbergii challenged to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was highly induced in hepatopancreas. The collective results of this study indicate that the MrIAP is an essential immune gene and influences the immune response against IHHNV infection in M. rosenbergii. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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