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Sunarto A.,CSIRO | Sunarto A.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Development | McColl K.A.,CSIRO
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2015

Fish herpesviruses and their hosts may have coevolved for 400 to 450 million yr. During this coexistence, the hosts have equipped themselves with an elaborate immune system to defend themselves from invading viruses, whereas the viruses have developed strategies to evade host immunity, including the expression of cytokine genes that have been captured from the host. Taking advantage of our experimental model for cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) persistence in carp, we studied the gene expression of host and virus immune-related genes in each stage of infection: acute, persistent and reactivation phases. IFN © Inter-Research 2015.

Mandal S.C.,Central Agricultural University | Singh S.K.,Central Agricultural University | Das P.,Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute | Ashraf Rather M.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Barman D.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Development
Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh | Year: 2013

The present study elucidates the reproductive performance of Betta splendens fed diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or vitamin E. Two hundred and forty B. splendens fry (0.141±0.02 g) were equally distributed into four treatment groups, each with three replicates, in 35-l glass aquaria. Fish were fed the following diets twice daily for 126 days: (a) formulated feed, (b) formulated feed+0.01% vitamin E, (c) formulated feed+1% EPA/DHA, or (d) formulated feed+0.01% vitamin E+1% EPA/DHA. The highest number of hatched larvae and best fry survival after two weeks were obtained after the second of two spawnings in fish fed the vitamin E diet. The average number of hatched larvae (143±11) and surviving fry (81±6) of both spawnings was highest in fish fed this same diet. Although there were significant differences in hatching rates between the first and second spawnings in a single treatment, there were no statistical differences between treatments in the average hatching rates or percent fry survival. The fatty acid profiles of the diets were not reflected in the gonad profiles except for n-6 PUFA, which correlated positively with hatched larvae (y = 10.02x - 146.2; R2 = 0.819) and fry survival (y = 5.581x - 80.37; R2 = 0.823). In summary, formulated feed enriched with vitamin E produced the best reproductive performance while diets enriched with EPA/DHA did not improve reproductive performance in B. splendens.

Rimmer M.A.,University of Sydney | Sugama K.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Development | Rakhmawati D.,Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries | Rofiq R.,Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries | Habgood R.H.,Richard Habgood Consulting
Reviews in Aquaculture | Year: 2013

Indonesia has a long history of aquaculture, dating from the 15th century. Subsequently, the country has become a significant contributor to global aquaculture production, destined for both international and domestic markets. In 2009 the Government of Indonesia announced its vision to see Indonesia become the highest (volume) producer of aquaculture products in the world by 2015, with production targets equivalent to an overall increase in production of 353% between 2009 and 2014. This paper comprises a PEEST (policy, economic, environmental, social, technical) review undertaken as a background study for a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis, the outcomes of the SWOT analysis and a discussion of possible approaches to support sustainable aquaculture development in Indonesia. To meet the vision of a dramatic expansion of aquaculture production, one or more of the following strategies is required: intensification and production segmentation, areal expansion, and/or production diversification. Most likely the continued development of aquaculture in Indonesia will be a combination of these three strategies, with the relative influence of each depending on production sector and market demands. A key issue identified in the PEEST review and SWOT analysis is the dominance (in terms of number) of Indonesian aquaculture by smallholder aquaculture farmers. We argue that a range of influences, including aquaculture production expansion and changing international market requirements, have the potential to negatively impact smallholder aquaculture farmers in Indonesia, and that further policy development should specifically address these issues. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Hamlin H.J.,University of Florida | Hamlin H.J.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Development | Milnes M.R.,Conservation and Research for Endangered Species | Beaulaton C.M.,Center for Aquaculture Research and Development | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2011

Stages of gonadal development, in association with plasma concentrations of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), were investigated for a single time point during a natural breeding season in 7-yr-old Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baeri Brandt, exposed lifelong to a warmwater environment. Among females, examination of gonadal tissue showed variation in ovarian stage, with 12.5, 47.5, 22.5, and 17.5% of females found at Stages 2 (previtellogenic), 3 (early vitellogenic), 4 (mid-vitellogenic), and 5 (migratory nucleus), respectively. Although patterns varied among the hormones, plasma concentrations of E2, T, and 11-KT became increasingly elevated in females as maturation progressed. On the basis of histological criteria, males were classified as either premeiotic (quiescent) or meiotic and 50% of the males sampled were found at each stage. Significant elevations in circulating concentrations of plasma E2 and T were observed in meiotic versus premeiotic males, and there was a rise in plasma 11-KT concentration that approached significance (P = 0.056). © by the World Aquaculture Society 2011.

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