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Farrugia K.J.,University of Strathclyde | Farrugia K.J.,University of Abertay Dundee | Riches P.,University of Strathclyde | Bandey H.,Center for Applied Science and Technology formerly | And 2 more authors.
Science and Justice | Year: 2012

Footwear impression lifting and enhancement techniques may be affected by several variables introduced during the production of test footwear impressions, thus limiting the usefulness of enhancement technique comparisons and the results obtained. One such variable is the force applied when the impressed mark is being made. Producing consistent test impressions for research into footwear enhancement techniques would therefore be beneficial. This study was designed to control pressure in the production of test footwear impressions when mimicking a stamping action. Twenty-seven volunteers were asked to stamp on two different surfaces and the average stamping force was recorded.Information from the data obtained was used to design and build a mechanical device which could be calibrated to consistently deliver footwear impressions with the same force onto a receiving surface. Preliminary experiments using this device and different contaminants on the footwear sole have yielded consistent and repeatable impressions. Controlling the variable of pressure for the production of test impressions in this study demonstrated that the differences observed were visual (due to the amount of contaminant transferred and subsequent enhancement) and did not affect the replication of outer sole characteristics. This paper reports the development of the device and illustrates the quality of the impressions produced. © 2011 Forensic Science Society.


Farrugia K.J.,University of Strathclyde | Farrugia K.J.,University of Abertay Dundee | Bandey H.,Center for Applied Science and Technology formerly | Savage K.,University of Strathclyde | NicDaeid N.,University of Strathclyde
Science and Justice | Year: 2013

Enhancement of footwear impressions, using ninhydrin or ninhydrin analogues is not considered common practice and such techniques are generally used to target amino acids present in fingermarks where the reaction gives rise to colour and possibly fluorescence. Ninhydrin and two of its analogues were used for the enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on various types, colours and porosities of fabric. Test footwear impressions on fabric were prepared using a specifically built rig to minimise the variability between each impression. Ninhydrin enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on light coloured fabric yielded good enhancement results, however the contrast was weak or non-existent on dark coloured fabrics. Other ninhydrin analogues which have the advantage of fluorescence failed to enhance the impressions in blood on all fabrics. The sequential treatment of impressions in blood on fabric with other blood enhancing reagents (e.g. protein stains and heme reagents) was also investigated. © 2012 Forensic Science Society.


Farrugia K.J.,University of Strathclyde | Farrugia K.J.,University of Abertay Dundee | Bandey H.,Center for Applied Science and Technology formerly | Bleay S.,Center for Applied Science and Technology formerly | NicDaeid N.,University of Strathclyde
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

A range of chemical techniques were utilised for the enhancement of footwear impressions deposited on a variety of fabric types of different colours with urine as a contaminant. A semi-automated stamping device was used to deliver test impressions at a set force to minimise the variability between impressions; multiple impressions were produced and enhanced by each reagent to determine the repeatability of the enhancement. Urine samples from different donors were analysed using a spectrofluorophotometer revealing differences between individuals. Results indicated that the enhancement of footwear impressions in urine was possible using amino acid staining techniques whereas protein stains failed to achieve successful enhancement. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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