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Ekerhovd N.-A.,Center for Applied Research | Kvamsdal S.F.,Center for Applied Research
Ecological Economics | Year: 2017

While economists have discussed ecosystem-based fisheries management and similar concepts, little attention has been devoted to purposeful modeling of food webs. Models of ecosystems or food webs that make economic analysis viable should capture as much as possible of system structure and dynamics while balancing biological and ecological detail against dimensionality and model complexity. Relevant models need strong, empirical content, but data availability may inhibit modeling efforts. Models are bound to be nonlinear, and model and observational uncertainty should be included. To deal with these issues and to improve modeling of ecosystems or food webs for use in ecosystem-based fisheries management analysis, we suggest the data assimilation method ensemble Kalman filtering. To illustrate the method, we model the dynamics of the main, pelagic species in the Norwegian Sea. In order to reduce parameter dimensionality, the species are modeled to rely on a common carrying capacity. We also take further methodological steps to deal with a still high number of parameters. Our best model captures much of the observed dynamics in the fish stocks while the estimated model error is moderate. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Neupane G.P.,Center for Applied Research
International Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2017

This paper offers an institutional framework for the mitigation of supply chain risks. Drawing on previous review papers in supply chain risks, institutional theory has been used as theoretical lens to develop supply chain risks management (SCRM) framework. This paper asserts that SCRM could perhaps be viewed as a profession that occupies with standard operating procedures as a set of embedded rules, and equips with normative and cultural-cognitive institutional elements. This means, certification, heuristics, and imitation could be used to mitigate supply chain risks. As the aim of the paper is to propose institutional framework for SCRM by incorporating institutional theory based arguments which is not only meaningful to the modern organizations but also applicable when they confront with the risk management challenges. Use of the institutional theory to develop a mechanism for SCRM encourages further examinations of this important topic. © ExcelingTech Pub, UK.


BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--State Street Corporation (NYSE:STT) and TruValue Labs, a provider of artificial intelligence-driven environmental, social and governance (ESG) data, today announced an agreement to promote the adoption of industry-standard ESG data produced according to the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) framework. TruValue Labs leverages artificial intelligence to review thousands of information sources each day and provide signals founded on real-time sustainability data analytics to investors, financial institutions and corporations. As part of the agreement, State Street will gain access to one of TruValue Labs’ ESG signals, based on SASB’s industry-leading materiality framework, which identifies sustainability issues at the industry level. According to a recent study of both retail and institutional investors from State Street’s Center for Applied Research, 60 percent of respondents note a lack of industry standards for measuring ESG performance as a significant barrier to full integration[1]. Additionally, benchmarking is also seen as one of the greatest challenges, as more than half of respondents say they find it difficult to benchmark performance against peers.[2] “Successful ESG investing is not possible without full data transparency into companies’ non-financial factors,” said John Plansky, global head of State Street Global Exchange. “State Street is committed to delivering timely and consistent ESG data and insights to our clients. This partnership with TruValue Labs is the next step in helping investors factor sustainability-related impacts when making decisions.” In addition to leveraging SASB’s framework, State Street and TruValue Labs plan to collaborate on research and the development of new products and solutions that will ultimately provide investors with the tools they need to further integrate key sustainability insights into their decision making processes. “We’re thrilled to partner with one of the world’s leading financial services providers,” said Hendrik Bartel, CEO and co-founder of San Francisco-based TruValue Labs. “This will give State Street clients the ability to use the SASB framework in decision making.” “State Street and TruValue Labs are united by a mission of improving the transparency and availability of data that will allow investment professionals to meaningfully analyze risk and identify opportunities that can be found beyond compulsory financial fillings,” said Mark McDivitt, head of ESG Solutions at State Street Global Exchange. "Sustainability issues impact financial performance in specific ways that vary by topic and industry," said SASB Director of Capital Markets Policy & Outreach Janine Guillot. "Today’s announcement will help the investment industry begin to compare company performance on material sustainability topics in the context of industry characteristics and value drivers." State Street Corporation (NYSE: STT) is one of the world's leading providers of financial services to institutional investors including investment servicing, investment management and investment research and trading. With $29.83 trillion in assets under custody and administration and over $2 trillion* in assets under management as of March 31, 2017, State Street operates globally in more than 100 geographic markets and employs 34,817 worldwide. For more information, visit State Street's website at www.statestreet.com. *Assets under management were $2.56 trillion as of March 31, 2017. AUM reflects approx. $33.33 billion (as of March 31, 2017) with respect to which State Street Global Advisors Funds Distributors, LLC (SSGA FD) serves as marketing agent; SSGA FD and State Street Global Advisors are affiliated. TruValue Labs is a data and risk analytics company which provides objective, timely, and alternative data sets that reveal intangible value by leveraging artificial intelligence. The core technology is the flexible InsightEngine,™ which captures extra-financial signals from unstructured data with a focus on Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) criteria. TruValue Labs delivers increased transparency to financial markets by providing analytics that go beyond traditional fundamentals, offering SaaS-based platforms, as well as state-of-the art API’s that allow for easy integration. [1] The study is based on a global survey of 582 institutional investors who are, or plan to, implement environment, social and governance (ESG) into their investment process and 750 individual ESG and non-ESG investors. [2] The study is based on a global survey of 582 institutional investors who are, or plan to, implement environment, social and governance (ESG) into their investment process and 750 individual ESG and non-ESG investors.


Dancing in the streets to the powerful beats from car sound systems – on virtually the one day every four years that such spontaneous public parties are tolerated – Iranians joyously celebrated the reelection of their hero, President Hassan Rouhani. Mr. Rouhani has promised greater freedoms and vowed to reconnect Iran to the world, and as voters celebrated, they chanted for the release of opposition leaders. But the jubilation had another cause, too: the rejection, by a wide margin, of hard-line challenger Ebrahim Raisi, who had the backing of key regime power centers in Iran, including the top brass of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). Recommended: How much do you know about Iran? Take our quiz to find out. Yet, wide as Mr. Rouhani’s victory has been – 57 percent of the vote to Mr. Raisi’s 38 percent in the May 19 election – significant questions remain. Can Rouhani convert his renewed popular mandate, and the clear direction toward openness demanded by voters, into changes in Iran’s revolutionary “deep state”? And will the failure of Iran’s hard-line camp to expand its own popular appeal, despite key advantages like full control of state media, help change the fundamental balance of power that has thwarted reform-minded presidents for two decades? Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, is still at the top of the leadership chain, and notably did not mention Rouhani by name when he praised the Iranian people and their 73 percent turnout as the “winner” of the vote. According to one Iranian official in Tehran, Mr. Khamenei also declined a request to meet Rouhani, whose campaign rhetoric broke taboos as he attacked regime elements like the IRGC, judiciary, and intelligence organs that have undermined him for four years. For now that is unlikely to change, the official says. “Rouhani’s second term will not be better than his first,” says the official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity. “The only hope is the support of the people, but if the situation gets worse, do you think they will still chant in favor of him and dance? I hope I am wrong.” A key to maintaining that support will be for the Islamic regime to “give some minor freedom” to the public, he says. “A small amount of freedom can suffice,” says the official. But the traditional limits are likely to apply, and the president will have to navigate carefully. The high turnout of nearly 40 million Iranian voters represents an evolution from the catastrophic disputed vote in 2009, when accusations of rigging and fraud in the reelection of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad were met by months of street protests of millions of angry Iranians. Many vowed to never vote again, to punish the nezam [governing system] for stealing their vote. Yet enough were convinced in 2013 to give Rouhani a hair-breadth first-round victory – partly based on Rouhani’s promise to get the release of the still-popular leaders of that Green Movement, under house arrest since 2011, and aware that boycotting the vote would hand hard-liners easy victory. In Iran’s deeply polarized and politicized society, where the candidates each portrayed their opponents as the kiss of death to the ideals of Iran’s 1979 Islamic Revolution, the challenge for the moderate Rouhani will be representing all Iranians, as he has promised to do, including the conservatives. Their support would be crucial if Rouhani has any hope of translating the result of the vote into changes in Iran’s “deep state” power institutions, sometimes called in Persian the dolat-e penhan, or “hidden government.” “Even in the most hard-line corners of the nezam, the republican nature of the Islamic Republic is appreciated and they know they cannot neutralize public demands, and will have to allow the president to deliver,” says Adnan Tabatabai, an Iran analyst and head of the Bonn-based Center for Applied Research in Partnership with the Orient (CARPO). “Rouhani’s task will be to engage them, and make them actually participate in this election victory,” says Mr. Tabatabai, who was in Iran during the election period. “He should let them capitalize on what he and his camp have achieved. The famous win-win approach he has defined for foreign policy,” he says, “he will have to do the same on domestic issues.” The president’s decades-long history as a regime insider and years as head of Iran’s Supreme National Security Council have improved his chances. But he has been targeted constantly by his opponents, and even called a “traitor.” “Rouhani is exactly the right person to know the right approach to do this. He was quite bold, and very open and explicit in criticizing the judiciary and security apparatus,” says Tabatabai. So far, there are no signs that hard-liners are ready to embrace unity, after such a bitterly contested race. Conservative media are still working to discredit Rouhani’s victory, just as they have long disparaged his policies and lionized Raisi’s candidacy. In one example this week, the editor of the hard-line Kayhan newspaper, Hossein Shariatmadari – whose business card notes that he is an official representative of the supreme leader – argued that the election result would have been different if Raisi, who won nearly 16 million votes after just 40 days of campaigning, had four years to prepare, like Rouhani did. The loss still stings for some hard-liners, who have viewed Raisi as a possible successor to Khamenei, ever since the supreme leader elevated the 56-year-old to head the most significant religious conglomerate and endowment in Iran, the shrine to the 8th Shiite Imam Reza in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. Soon after his appointment, top IRGC commanders including Qods Force chief Qassem Soleimani met with Raisi. During the election campaign, IRGC-funded media boosted Raisi while they denigrated Rouhani. And a few weeks before the vote, the Tehran Friday prayer leader raised eyebrows when he gave Raisi an indirect plug: “Let’s pray to God that the candidate liked by Imam Reza comes out of the ballot box,” he said. Like the hard-liners, Rouhani, too, has been less than conciliatory, accusing his rival again on Wednesday of using popular devotion to Imam Reza to gain votes. Meanwhile, any chance of Raisi now becoming supreme leader may have been damaged by his defeat. Some argue that letting that happen was a deliberate strategy by Khamenei, and note that power centers in Iran that oppose Rouhani are far from monolithic. “I am sure the leader knew that [fundamentalist] candidates are no match for Rouhani,” says the Iranian official in Tehran. “I believe the leader wanted to prove that Raisi is not a good person to fill his position. He is not happy with Rouhani either, but Rouhani is not a direct threat to him,” says the official. One key result of the election is a widening gap between the leader and the IRGC, says the official. “There are certain groups of Guard commanders who are opposing [Khamenei] on domestic and international issues,” says the official. “They were the ones the leader wanted to prove that Raisi is not a good choice, neither for the presidency nor [supreme] leadership.… The question is if Rouhani can use this opportunity or not.” The commanders, including IRGC chief Mohammad Ali Jafari, “have power, money, media, and foot soldiers” and a core mission of saving the nezam. They “want to prove the Rouhani team is not functioning well” in handling President Trump and Iran’s regional power struggle for influence, the official adds.  Rouhani will want to demonstrate the opposite, buoyed by his new mandate. Even in these bastions of power are supporters of Rouhani and “people who have brothers, sisters, cousins who are supportive of the moderate and reformist camp,” says Tabatabai of CARPO. “I think this may prevent a very hard pushback, but this obviously does not mean that Rouhani will now have an easy job,” he adds. “The people, the voters, forced themselves onto the structure of the ‘deep state,’ of the security apparatus. By turning out in these huge numbers, they made it impossible to be ignored.” How much do you know about Iran? Take our quiz to find out. Taboo-breaking election is test of how much dissent Iran can handle With huge arms deal, US pivots back to Saudis. How does it affect the region? Become a part of the Monitor community Link up with us!


News Article | September 9, 2016
Site: www.fastcompany.com

In the past few months, a string of overdoses across the U.S. has been linked to an opioid drug so potent that it’s not intended for human consumption. Carfentanil is the world's most powerful commercial opioid, considered to be 100 times more potent than its relative fentanyl, the carefully controlled prescription painkiller linked to Prince's death, which itself is 50 times stronger than heroin. Originally synthesized in the 1970s, carfentanil is marketed under the name Wildnil as a general anaesthetic for large animals like elephants, and was never intended for humans. But like any number of new synthetic drugs, it’s easily finding its way from clandestine labs and into the illicit drug supply through the mail. Sold openly on the web or through drug markets on the anonymous Tor network, the drug is being added to heroin and counterfeit pain medication by traffickers and often taken by users who don't know exactly what they're consuming. "We’re seeing a lot of the activity take place over the internet through anonymous relationships between a consumer and the drug manufacturer or source of supply," says Russ Baer, a spokesman for the Drug Enforcement Administration. The agency has warned communities across the country to be on alert for the drug, and has told first responders to wear protective gloves and masks, since the drug can be dangerous to someone who simply touches it. Both drugs, along with a growing cornucopia of illicit synthetics, are largely being manufactured in China, Baer says, and smuggled into the United States both over land and through the U.S. Postal Service. In June, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection said it had seized almost 200 pounds in fentanyl and other synthetic opioids—that is, those made purely in labs, rather than from the opium poppy—compared to only 8 pounds the previous year. In recent months, hundreds of drug overdoses have been linked to carfentanil and fentanyl, a related opioid said to be 100 times the strength of morphine and commonly used to treat severe pain in cancer patients. The drug has showed up on the Gulf Coast of Florida, in western Pennsylvania, central Kentucky, and in Ohio, where, in one county this August, at least 96 heroin users overdosed in a single week. Cursory internet searches turn up options to order the drug from Chinese sellers on numerous e-commerce websites and through dark web markets on the Tor network, where users can trade largely anonymously using bitcoin and purchase other controlled substances, from ketamine to cocaine. Dark web vendors contacted about their supplies didn't respond to requests for comment, and one Chinese vendor advertising carfentanil on a Korea-based e-commerce site responded only with a price quote—$300 for 200 milligrams—ignoring questions about how the product would be shipped. Vendors often use discreet packaging for the drug. Last month Canadian border officials reported seizing one kilogram of the drug labeled as printer accessories, with agents wearing hazmat suits to handle the highly potent chemical. The risks of the drug have also led some vendors to limit who can purchase the substance and to caution users about its dangers. In one recent listing, a vendor offering the drug pledges to only make it available to users who’ve already tried fentanyl or a related drug. "Again, we can’t stress this enough, carfentanil is meant to be purchased by *only* experienced fentanyl users with a high tolerance," wrote one dealer on a hidden site. "This stuff is NO JOKE." Another vendor, offering to ship the drug from China, warns users on safe handling instructions, which mirror those used by the veterinary industry. "You need to wear mask and gloves to handle this chem," the seller writes. "Accidental contact can result in OD." Authorities say the drug is often shipped from China, an epicenter of synthetic chemical manufacturing and the source, according to the DEA, of the ingredients that Mexican drug traffickers use to make most of the methamphetamine consumed in the U.S. Drug officials have complained of "thousands" of clandestine labs in China, and said that despite the country's strict drug laws, authorities there have been slow to address the problem. "We aim to help and support other countries in any way we can," Liu Yuejin, China's assistant minister of public security, has said about the government's commitment to international cooperation against drug traffickers. Chinese officials have acknowledged that the country produces "a substantial" share of the newer synthetic drugs on the global black market and have been stepping up efforts to control the traffic. Last year the country's courts handled nearly 140,000 drug-related cases, up 30% from 2014, according to official data. DEA officials are also in ongoing discussions with their counterparts in China about how to stem the tide of opiate imports, Baer says. Many of the country's illicit labs attempt to stay one step ahead of laws that ban illicit synthetic drugs simply by altering a few molecules of the chemical compound, creating new and not-yet-illegal drugs. While some countries, like the U.S., have banned whole ranges of chemicals that mimic illegal drugs, many nations have not. Following a ban last fall of more than 115 synthetic drugs, including various analogs of fentanyl, a new, unregulated analog, furanyl fentanyl, began to appear in the U.S., according to U.S. drug officials, who subsequently moved to ban the drug stateside. At least one Chicago man died from an overdose of the drug. "Fentanyl and fentanyl-related compounds, whether we’re speaking about fentanyl analogs such as a carfentanil, or compounds that haven’t been scheduled—for example U-47700—for the most part are originating in China," Baer says. Since Baer spoke to Fast Company, the DEA has announced plans to move U-47700, a powerful experimental opioid discovered in the 1970s but never approved for use in humans, into the same legal category of drugs as heroin and LSD, effectively banning it. Legal chemicals to manufacture the drugs are also being smuggled from China into Mexico and ultimately being used to strengthen heroin or make counterfeit versions of pain pills like oxycodone, Baer says. In some cases, those precursor chemicals are stolen from licensed labs in Mexico and end up in the hands of drug traffickers. "As far as the precursor chemicals go, you’ve got a legitimate drug manufacturing company in China shipping a precursor chemical to a legitimate chemical handler in Mexico," says Baer. "Once they arrive in Mexico, these precursor chemicals are often then diverted to these Mexican trafficking organizations." Carfentanil isn't often sold to users on its own, but rather significantly diluted and sold as heroin. One dark web listing contains a recipe for China White—a term used for potent varieties of heroin—that suggest mixing 100 milligrams of carfentanil with 100 grams of a cutting agent. Carfentanil prices on the site and elsewhere online range from $800 to about $2,500 per gram, while a report last year from the Ohio Substance Abuse Monitoring Network found heroin for sale in the Cleveland area for roughly $90 to $120 per gram, and similar prices are available through the dark web. But if one gram of carfentanil equivalent can be used to produce the equivalent of 1,000 grams of heroin—in line with the recipe and published reports of the drug's potency—carfentanil is still orders of magnitude cheaper per dose than heroin. Since an equivalent dose is smaller and easier to smuggle without necessarily being much more expensive to manufacture, more potent drugs can be easier and cheaper to distribute, says Steven Kurtz, the director of Nova Southeastern University’s Center for Applied Research on Substance Abuse and Health Disparities. But, he says, retail-level dealers, let alone the rising number of people affected by what’s been called an epidemic of opioid addiction, often don’t even know what’s in a particular packet sold as heroin. Most of those who overdose on carfentanil likely don't even know they've ingested it. "It’s very lucrative," he says. "The good thing about high potency from a distribution network standpoint is it can be shipped in very small containers, but the problem from a user standpoint is you have no idea what you’re taking." After a rash of deaths in Cincinnati over the Labor Day weekend, the city’s coroner said she believed that the area was being used as a "test tube" by drug dealers who were cutting carfentanil into fentanyl and heroin. Since the drug was until recently so rare outside of specialized veterinary practice, scientists aren’t entirely sure what the lethal human dose of the drug is—though experts have speculated it could be less than the weight of a grain of sugar. Only 19 grams of the drug were legally produced in the U.S. last year, according the DEA, though more than 50 times that amount was found in just one shipment from China seized by Canadian authorities in late June. In 2010, the authors of a paper in the American Journal of Emergency Medicine reported what they called the first confirmed case of poisoning with the drug. They described a veterinarian who, while sedating elk for a tuberculosis test, accidentally splashed his face with carfentanil while pulling a misdirected tranquilizer dart from a tree trunk. Within two minutes, he became drowsy and had to be treated with an opioid antidote kit that’s kept on hand when the drug is used. He recovered without serious incident, according to the report. And while the drug is increasingly available to drug traffickers and dark web buyers, it’s still hard to come by for law enforcement officials who need samples to compare against seized substances and to determine the cause of death of overdose victims. "When we first started talking about fentanyl in July, we were unable to actually get a sample [of carfentanil] for testing, so we reached out to the zoo," said Dr. Lakshmi Sammarco, the coroner of Ohio’s Hamilton County, which includes Cincinnati, in a Tuesday press conference. "It is a compound that is used for large animal sedation and opiate use, but we weren’t able to get any from our zoo—they didn’t have any. So we reached out to our fellow coroners in Franklin County, Summit and Cuyahoga County, and nobody had enough." Only by working with Senator Rob Portman and the DEA was Sammarco’s office able to obtain a sample of the drug and confirm it had killed at least eight people in the county since July. Since carfentanil is still rare, and many labs don't yet have the ability to test for it, it's difficult to know how many deaths are attributed to the drug. But Centers for Disease Control researchers have said fentanyl-related deaths in Ohio rose 526%, from 84 to 526, between 2013 and 2014, as synthetic opioids first began to appear in the state in large numbers. County officials are also worried about the efficacy of naloxone, or Narcan, the opioid antidote that helps users recover from a heroin overdose. While emergency responders typically use one or two shots to counteract a heroin overdose, carfentanil can require six or even more. A spokesman for the city of Cincinnati told the local Fox affiliate that a typical Narcan dose costs about $32, a cost that's increased in recent years from $15 a dose. Senator Portman is part of a group of lawmakers who introduced legislation to require more digital information for packages shipped internationally in an effort to make it harder to import drugs through the mail. The Postal Service currently receives less electronic information about packages before they arrive in the U.S. than private carriers such as UPS and FedEx do, making it harder to detect suspicious shipments, he said in a statement. "That includes information like who and where it is coming from, who it’s going to, where it is going, and what’s in it," he said. "Having this information in advance will enable CBP to better target potential illegal packages, and that will help ensure that dangerous drugs like fentanyl and carfentanil don’t end up in the hands of drug traffickers who want to harm our local communities." The bill was referred to the Senate Finance Committee, though it's unclear, assuming it passes, whether it will do much to limit the flow of synthetic drugs or simply drive smugglers to get them into the country by other means. According to Baer, much of the carfentanil and other strong opioids causing overdoses are likely delivered through more traditional channels. In the case of Cincinnati, it's thought that the drug is mostly coming in through heroin shipments that flow north on Interstates 71 and 75. "Traditional smuggling methods are being used in terms of the bulk smuggling activity," he says. And while opioid addicts are likely increasingly aware of the dangers posed by chemicals of unpredictable potency, they're often left with limited alternatives. "People in communities that are using the drugs are becoming more and more aware that they can’t necessarily trust the potency of what they’re taking," says Kurtz. "At the same time, opioid addiction is extremely powerful, so having them stop isn’t usually an option."


Kvamsdal S.F.,Center for Applied Research
Marine Resource Economics | Year: 2016

Technical change is generally seen as a major source of growth, but usually cannot be observed directly and measurement can be difficult. With only aggregate data, measurement puts further demands on the empirical strategy. Structural time series models and the state-space form are well suited for unobserved phenomena, such as technical change. In fisheries, technical advance often contributes to increased fishing pressure, and improved productivity measures are important for managers concerned with efficiency or conservation. I apply a structural time series model with a stochastic trend to measure technical change in a Cobb-Douglas production function, considering both single equation and multivariate models. Results from the Norwegian Lofoten cod fishery show that the approach has both methodological and empirical advantages when compared with results from the general index approach, which has been applied in the literature. © 2016 MRE Foundation, Inc.


Syamsuddin I.,Center for Applied Research
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems | Year: 2013

RFID technology has many potential applications that would ease object identification seamlessly. One of its potential benefits to government is the adoption of RFID tag as embedded smart material within vehicle license plate. However, adoption of RFID in vehicle license plate is fragile from various RFID attacks while efforts to improve its security will lead to additional cost. Enhancing RFID security without extra cost poses new challenges to researchers in the area. This study aims to provide a state of the art on RFID authentication protocols under low cost restriction as a foundation for decision maker for further development stage of RFID based vehicle license plate. In depth analysis is performed by assessing the protocols according to three features namely data protection, tracking prevention, and forward security. Finally, it is concluded that the protocols are vary in satisfying three aspects of security features.


Stone R.I.,Center for Applied Research
Generations | Year: 2016

One major solution to the projected decline in the availability of direct care workers to provide long-term services and supports is to recruit and rely upon foreign-born or migrant workers. Most workers enter the host country through "unmanaged migration" routes potentially leading to financial, emotional, and physical exploitation of workers, and inadequate education and training that could jeopardize the quality of care delivered, and create significant care gaps in the country of origin. The implications of foreign worker and immigration policy to address the care demands of an aging world should be heeded by all countries. © 2016 American Society on Aging; all rights reserved.


Lichy J.,Center for Applied Research
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2011

The Internet has radically transformed society - although its diffusion has been uneven. Various studies of digital inequality have been undertaken in Anglo-Saxon communities. Few studies have investigated digital inequality from a socio-spatial perspective (urban vs. suburban, rather than urban vs. rural) in a French setting. This absence underscores a gap in knowledge and methodology. It highlights the complexities of gathering comparable data on Internet user behaviour beyond national borders. This paper takes a multidisciplinary approach to investigate emerging trends in Internet use across different territories (inner-city and suburban, as opposed to urban vs. rural) by means of in-depth interviews with Internet users aged 13-15 years old in France and Britain. The aim is to provide a broad understanding of the way in which teenage Internet users behave online in different territories. The investigation reveals a number of converging trends that are common to both France and Britain and some unexpected disparity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--New research published today by the Center for Applied Research, the independent think-tank of State Street (NYSE: STT), and CFA Institute, argues that to succeed, the investment industry and its professionals need to move from a performance-driven culture to one that is purpose-driven to better ensure clients’ long-term goals are met. The research, titled “Finding Phi: Motivation as the Hidden Variable of Performance,” has identified “phi”, a factor that has a positive

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