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Reid P.C.,Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science | Reid P.C.,University of Plymouth | Reid P.C.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Hari R.E.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | And 37 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2016

Despite evidence from a number of Earth systems that abrupt temporal changes known as regime shifts are important, their nature, scale and mechanisms remain poorly documented and understood. Applying principal component analysis, change-point analysis and a sequential t-test analysis of regime shifts to 72 time series, we confirm that the 1980s regime shift represented a major change in the Earth's biophysical systems from the upper atmosphere to the depths of the ocean and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and occurred at slightly different times around the world. Using historical climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and statistical modelling of historical temperatures, we then demonstrate that this event was triggered by rapid global warming from anthropogenic plus natural forcing, the latter associated with the recovery from the El Chichón volcanic eruption. The shift in temperature that occurred at this time is hypothesized as the main forcing for a cascade of abrupt environmental changes. Within the context of the last century or more, the 1980s event was unique in terms of its global scope and scale; our observed consequences imply that if unavoidable natural events such as major volcanic eruptions interact with anthropogenic warming unforeseen multiplier effects may occur. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Sitch S.,University of Exeter | Friedlingstein P.,University of Exeter | Gruber N.,ETH Zurich | Jones S.D.,University of East Anglia | And 29 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2015

The land and ocean absorb on average just over half of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. These CO2 "sinks" are modulated by climate change and variability. Here we use a suite of nine dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and four ocean biogeochemical general circulation models (OBGCMs) to estimate trends driven by global and regional climate and atmospheric CO2 in land and oceanic CO2 exchanges with the atmosphere over the period 1990-2009, to attribute these trends to underlying processes in the models, and to quantify the uncertainty and level of inter-model agreement. The models were forced with reconstructed climate fields and observed global atmospheric CO2; land use and land cover changes are not included for the DGVMs. Over the period 1990-2009, the DGVMs simulate a mean global land carbon sink of g'2.4 ± 0.7 Pg C yrg'1 with a small significant trend of g'0.06 ± 0.03 Pg C yrg'2 (increasing sink). Over the more limited period 1990-2004, the ocean models simulate a mean ocean sink of g'2.2 ± 0.2 Pg C yrg'1 with a trend in the net C uptake that is indistinguishable from zero (g'0.01 ± 0.02 Pg C yrg'2). The two ocean models that extended the simulations until 2009 suggest a slightly stronger, but still small, trend of g'0.02 ± 0.01 Pg C yrg'2. Trends from land and ocean models compare favourably to the land greenness trends from remote sensing, atmospheric inversion results, and the residual land sink required to close the global carbon budget. Trends in the land sink are driven by increasing net primary production (NPP), whose statistically significant trend of 0.22 ± 0.08 Pg C yrg'2 exceeds a significant trend in heterotrophic respiration of 0.16 ± 0.05 Pg C yrg'2 - primarily as a consequence of widespread CO2 fertilisation of plant production. Most of the land-based trend in simulated net carbon uptake originates from natural ecosystems in the tropics (g'0.04 ± 0.01 Pg C yrg'2), with almost no trend over the northern land region, where recent warming and reduced rainfall offsets the positive impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and changes in growing season length on carbon storage. The small uptake trend in the ocean models emerges because climate variability and change, and in particular increasing sea surface temperatures, tend to counter\-act the trend in ocean uptake driven by the increase in atmospheric CO2. Large uncertainty remains in the magnitude and sign of modelled carbon trends in several regions, as well as regarding the influence of land use and land cover changes on regional trends. © 2015 Author(s). Source


Yan H.,National Meteorological Center | Yan H.,University of Virginia | Wang S.-Q.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Lu H.-Q.,National Meteorological Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2014

Vegetation effects are currently disregarded in Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and the sensitivity of PDSI to the choice of potential evaporation (EP) parameterization is often a concern. We developed a revised self-calibrating PDSI model that replaces EP with leaf area index-based total evapotranspiration (ARTS E0). It also included a simple snowmelt module. Using a unique satellite leaf area index data set and climate data, we calculated and compared ARTS E0, three other types of EP (i.e., Thornthwaite EP-Th, Allen EP-Al, and Penman-Monteith EP-PM), and corresponding PDSI values (i.e., PDSI-ARTS, PDSI-Th, PDSI-Al, and PDSI-PM) for the period 1982-2011. The results of PDSI-ARTS, PDSI-Al, and PDSI-PM show that global land became wetter mainly due to increased precipitation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect for the period, which confirms the ongoing intensification of global hydrologic cycle with global temperature increase. However, only PDSI-Th gave a trend of global drying, which confirms that PDSI-Th overestimates the global drying in response to global warming; i.e., PDSI values are sensitive to the parameterizations for Ep. Thus, ARTS E0, EP-Al, and EP-PM are preferred to EP-Th in global drought monitoring. In short, global warming affects global drought condition in two opposite ways. One is to contribute to the increases of EP and hence drought; the other is to increase global precipitation that contributes to global wetting. These results suggest that precipitation trend and its interaction with global warming and ENSO should be given much attention to correctly quantify past and future trends of drought. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source


Catalano F.,ENEA | Alessandri A.,ENEA | De Felice M.,ENEA | Zhu Z.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | And 2 more authors.
Earth System Dynamics | Year: 2016

The temporal variance of soil moisture, vegetation and evapotranspiration over land has been recognized to be strongly connected to the temporal variance of precipitation. However, the feedbacks and couplings between these variables are still not well understood and quantified. Furthermore, soil moisture and vegetation processes are associated with a memory and therefore they may have important implications for predictability. In this study we apply a generalized linear method, specifically designed to assess the reciprocal forcing between connected fields, to the latest available observational data sets of global precipitation, evapotranspiration, vegetation and soil moisture content. For the first time a long global observational data set is used to investigate the spatial and temporal land variability and to characterize the relationships and feedbacks between land and precipitation. The variables considered show a significant coupling among each other. The analysis of the response of precipitation to soil moisture evidences a robust coupling between these two variables. In particular, the first two modes of variability in the precipitation forced by soil moisture appear to have a strong link with volcanic eruptions and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles, respectively, and these links are modulated by the effects of evapotranspiration and vegetation. It is suggested that vegetation state and soil moisture provide a biophysical memory of ENSO and major volcanic eruptions, revealed through delayed feedbacks on rainfall patterns. The third mode of variability reveals a trend very similar to the trend of the inter-hemispheric contrast in sea surface temperature (SST) and appears to be connected to greening/browning trends of vegetation over the last three decades. © 2016 Author(s). Source


Ichii K.,Fukushima University | Ichii K.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Kondo M.,Fukushima University | Okabe Y.,Fukushima University | And 8 more authors.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

Past changes in gross primary productivity (GPP) were assessed using historical satellite observations based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite series and four terrestrial biosphere models to identify the trends and driving mechanisms related to GPP and NDVI in Asia. A satellite-based time-series data analysis showed that approximately 40% of the area has experienced a significant increase in the NDVI, while only a few areas have experienced a significant decreasing trend over the last 30 years. The increases in the NDVI are dominant in the sub-continental regions of Siberia, East Asia, and India. Simulations using the terrestrial biosphere models also showed significant increases in GPP, similar to the results for the NDVI, in boreal and temperate regions. A modeled sensitivity analysis showed that the increases in GPP are explained by increased temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Precipitation, solar radiation and CO2 fertilization are important factors in the tropical regions. However, the relative contributions of each factor to GPP changes are different among the models. © 2013 by the authors. Source

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