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Smith R.I.L.,Center for Antarctic Plant Ecology and Diversity
Antarctic Science | Year: 2014

A fem, Elaphoglossum hybridum (Bory) Brack., has been cultured from mineral sediment in cryoconite holes in the ice cap of Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. Its provenance, mode of transport to its Maritime Antarctic destination and the significance of viable exotic propagules as potential colonists are discussed. © Antarctic Science Ltd 2013. Source


Pugh P.J.A.,Anglia Ruskin University | Lewis Smith R.I.,Center for Antarctic Plant Ecology and Diversity
Antarctic Science | Year: 2011

Multivariate analysis shows that shells of Notodiscus sp. (Charopidae: Pulmonata) reported from South Georgia are smaller and proportionately taller than, but otherwise similar to, populations of Notodiscus hookeri (Reeve) from Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen. The origin of this solitary, and spatially limited, South Georgia population is enigmatic. It is confined to a remarkably small coastal lowland site which was glaciated at Last Glacial Maximum, precluding a Tertiary relict origin, and on the leeward north-east coast, ruling out postglacial ocean rafting. The site is close to the King Edward Point settlement, yet the absence of any logistics connections with the Iles Crozet or Iles Kerguelen mitigates against anthropogenic introduction. The close proximity of the population to nests of blue-eyed shag (Phalacrocorax atriceps), Dominican gull (Larus dominicanus) and light-mantled sooty albatross (Phoebetria palpebrata) could imply the snail was originally introduced to South Georgia via these ocean transiting seabirds. © 2011 Antarctic Science Ltd. Source


Ovstedal D.O.,University of Bergen | Lewis Smith R.I.,Center for Antarctic Plant Ecology and Diversity
Folia Cryptogamica Estonica | Year: 2011

Four lichen species new to the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic South Georgia are reported. One is new to science: a species of Leciophysma with rough, non-granular thallus and reduced proper exciple. A total of 484 lichenized fungal taxa have now been reported from Antarctica and South Georgia. Source


Smith R.I.L.,Center for Antarctic Plant Ecology and Diversity | Richardson M.,PO Box 8
Biological Invasions | Year: 2010

Two species of flowering plant of Fuegian montane provenance have been discovered on Deception Island in the maritime Antarctic, 950 km south of South America. Four individuals of Nassauvia magellanica and one of Gamochaeta nivalis (both Asteraceae) are growing robustly and in close proximity of each other on dry ash and scoria soil near a ruined whaling station which, in recent years, has been frequently visited by large numbers of ship-borne tourists. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty and the Management Plan for the island, designated an Antarctic Specially Managed Area, provide strict regulations for the conduct of visitors to this site and precautions against the accidental introduction of non-indigenous species. While their establishment on this remote volcanic island may have been anthropogenically mediated, natural immigration cannot be ruled out as both species produce seed adapted for wind-dispersal in their native Tierra del Fuego. The ecological consequences if one or both of these aliens spreads beyond their present restricted location are considered. While determined efforts are being made to implement rigorous biosecurity measures in Antarctica, current Antarctic Treaty policy on dealing with colonizing invasive alien species is indecisive and requires urgent action and clear recommendations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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