Vila Real de Santo António, Portugal
Vila Real de Santo António, Portugal

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Ramos S.,Royal University | Ramos S.,Center for Animal and Veterinary Science | Igrejas G.,Royal University | Rodrigues J.,Center for Animal and Veterinary Science | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

The prevalence of vancomycin resistant-enterococci (VRE) in faecal samples from cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered for human consumption was evaluated. Enterococci containing the vanA gene were detected in 25.3% and 2.7% of the porcine and ovine samples, respectively, and were identified as Enterococcus faecium. No vanA-containing enterococcal strains were detected in bovine samples. Enterococcal strains with intrinsic vancomycin resistance were detected in seven (9.9%) faecal samples from pigs and in two samples from both cattle and sheep (3.7% and 2.7%, respectively). All vanA-positive isolates from pigs were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and the mobile element Tn. 916/Tn. 1545-like transposon was detected in 90.5% of the tetracycline-resistant isolates that contained the tet(M) gene. Although gelatinase and haemolytic activity were not detected, the hyl and cylB virulence genes were found within the VRE strains isolated. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Carvalhinho S.,Royal University | Carvalhinho S.,University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro | Costa A.M.,Royal University | Coelho A.C.,Center for Animal and Veterinary Science | And 3 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2012

Forty Candida albicans strains isolated from patient's mouth with fixed orthodontic appliances were analyzed to their susceptibilities to antifungal agents, mouth rinses and essential oils. Susceptibility to fluconazole, econazole, miconazole and ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed by the disk diffusion (DD) method based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M44-A protocol, and by Etest (fluconazole and amphotericin B). The susceptibilities to mouth rinses and essential oils were also determined by the DD technique. All isolates tested were susceptible (S) to amphotericin B, nystatin and fluconazole. The overall concordance between the DD and the Etest was 100% for amphotericin and fluconazole. One isolate was resistant to econazole (2.5%) and the other to ketoconazole (2.5%). Econazole and ketoconazole had the highest percentages of susceptible dose dependent (SDD), 55 and 95%, respectively. Regarding to the susceptibility isolates profile, seven phenotypes were detected, and the 3 more represented (90% of the isolates) of them were SDD to one, two or three azoles. The study of mouth rinses showed a high variability of efficacy against C. albicans. The results showed that the isolates susceptibility to essential oils differed (P < 0.05). The profile activity was: cinnamon > laurel > mint > eucalyptus > rosemary > lemon > myrrh > tangerine. The main finding was that the susceptibility to cinnamon and laurel varied among the three more representative antifungal phenotypes (P < 0. 05). The susceptibility of econazole-SDD isolates to cinnamon and lemon was higher than those of the econazole-S yeasts (P < 0. 05). In contrast, econazole-SDD isolates were less affected by laurel than econazole-S counterparts (P < 0. 05). © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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