Center for Aging and Associated Diseases

Arish, Egypt

Center for Aging and Associated Diseases

Arish, Egypt
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Haikal R.R.,Center for Materials Science | Soliman A.B.,Center for Materials Science | Soliman A.B.,Ain Shams University | Pellechia P.J.,University of South Carolina | And 4 more authors.
Carbon | Year: 2017

We report a family of novel microporous polymers constructed through covalent cross linkage of the buckyball and linear dialkyne through Cu-mediated, one-pot synthesis. A novel functionalization-polymerization pathway is described whereby Cu-mediated free radical species, generated in-situ, triggered multiple additions of the ditopic alkyne to C60. The multi-functionalized C60 species act as nodes that afforded microporous networks on extension through proper bridges. Solid-based spectroscopy techniques allowed identification of the chemical composition of the polymers, while gas sorption measurements were utilized to probe the microporosity, surface area, and pore size distribution of the constructed solids. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy demonstrated a free radical pathway for the polymerization reaction. In addition to a relatively unstable diisopropyl nitroxide radical, EPR revealed a quasi-stable, C60-derived, organic radical that exhibits an unusually intense MW absorption and long lifetime at room temperature (>5 days). Two of the reported solids were further investigated and demonstrated activity for electrochemical CO2 reduction. We present here a simple and versatile pathway for using C60 as a building block in the construction of novel materials, and potentially porous magnetic materials encompassing diverse functionality and manipulable properties. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Fathalla A.M.,Suez Canal University | Soliman A.M.,Suez Canal University | Ali M.H.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases | Moustafa A.A.,University of Western Sydney
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Pharmacological studies implicate the blockade of adenosine receptorsas an effective strategy for reducing Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms. The objective of this study is to elucidate the possible protective effects of ZM241385 and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine, two selective A2A and A1 receptor antagonists, on a rotenone rat model of PD. Rats were split into four groups: vehicle control (1 ml/kg/48 h), rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c.), ZM241385 (3.3 mg/kg/day, i.p) and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (5 mg/kg/day, i.p). After that, animals were subjected to behavioral (stride length and grid walking) and biochemical (measuring concentration of dopamine levels using high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC). In the rotenone group, rats displayed a reduced motor activity and disturbed movement coordination in the behavioral tests and a decreased dopamine concentration as foundby HPLC. The effect of rotenone was partially prevented in the ZM241385 group, but not with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine administration. The administration of ZM241385 improved motor function and movement coordination (partial increase of stride length and partial decrease in the number of foot slips) and an increase in dopamine concentration in the rotenone-injected rats. However, the 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and rotenone groups were not significantly different. These results indicate that selective A2A receptor blockade by ZM241385, but not A1 receptor blockadeby 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, may treat PD motor symptoms. This reinforces the potential use of A2A receptor antagonists as a treatment strategy for PD patients. © 2016 Fathalla, Soliman, Ali and Moustafa.

Belousova V.,Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences | Abd-Rabou A.A.,Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences | Abd-Rabou A.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abd-Rabou A.A.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases | Mousa S.A.,Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Current estimates indicate that the hepatitis C virus is the leading cause of death in the United States with infection rates steadily increasing. Successful treatment is made difficult by the presence of various host, virus, and treatment-related factors, warranting the development of new approaches to combat the silent epidemic. The addition of telaprevir and boceprevir to the pharmacotherapeutic arsenal drastically improved success rates in genotype 1 infected patients, but rapid development of resistance mechanisms, increases in adverse effects, and a low spectrum activity proved to be barriers to efficacious treatment. In late 2013, two new agents were approved - sofosbuvir and simeprevir - that have higher barriers to resistance, favorable safety profiles, and profoundly improved success rates; however higher costs associated with the new medications could limit their wider utilization. Further strategies to combat the virus are under development, ranging from interferon-free regimens as well as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines to applications of nanotechnology, helping us get closer to improved treatment of patients infected with hepatitis C. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Elsherbiny M.E.,University of Alberta | Emara M.,University of Alberta | Emara M.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases | Godbout R.,University of Alberta
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2013

Malignant gliomas are the most common adult brain cancers. In spite of aggressive treatment, recurrence occurs in the great majority of patients and is invariably fatal. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are abundant in brain, particularly ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Although the levels of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are tightly regulated in brain, the ω-6:ω-3 ratio is dramatically increased in malignant glioma, suggesting deregulation of fundamental lipid homeostasis in brain tumor tissue. The migratory properties of malignant glioma cells can be modified by altering the ratio of AA:DHA in growth medium, with increased migration observed in AA-rich medium. This fatty acid-dependent effect on cell migration is dependent on expression of the brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7) previously shown to bind DHA and AA. Increased levels of enzymes involved in eicosanoid production in FABP7-positive malignant glioma cells suggest that FABP7 is an important modulator of AA metabolism. We provide evidence that increased production of eicosanoids in FABP7-positive malignant glioma growing in an AA-rich environment contributes to tumor infiltration in the brain. We discuss pathways and molecules that may underlie FABP7/AA-mediated promotion of cell migration and FABP7/DHA-mediated inhibition of cell migration in malignant glioma. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Abd-Rabou A.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abd-Rabou A.A.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2016

The story of the cell commonder, calcium, reaches into all corners of the cell and controls cell proliferation, differentiation, function, and even death. The calcium-driven eukaryotic revolution is one of the great turning points in the life history, happened about two billion years later when it was converted from a dangerous killer that had to be kept out of cell into the cell master which drives the cell. This review article will take the readers to a tour of tissues chosen to best show the calcium’s many faces (proliferator, differentiator, and killer). The reader will first see calcium and its many helpers, such as the calcium-binding signaler protein calmodulin, directing the key events of the cell cycle. Then the tour will move onto the colon to show calcium driving the proliferation of progenitor cells, then the differentiation and ultimately the programmed death of their progeny. Moreover, the reader will learn of the striking disabling and bypassing of calcium-dependent control mechanisms during carcinogenesis. Finally, recommendations should be taken from the underlying mechanisms through which calcium masters the presistance, progression, and even apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells. Thus, this could be of great interest for designing of chemoprevention protocols. © 2016 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India

Emara M.,University of Alberta | Emara M.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases | Turner A.R.,University of Alberta | Allalunis-Turner J.,University of Alberta
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Hemoglobin is produced mainly in erythroid cells. However, it has been reported in non-erythroid cells of human and rodents. We have shown previously that neuroglobin, cytoglobin and hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. We sought to determine whether hemoglobin expression is upregulated by hypoxia, and whether its expression is restricted to the cancer stem cell populations in different GBM cell lines or GBM brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). Flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting and qRT-PCR were used to examine the hypoxic upregulation of hemoglobins as well as erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, U87R and U87T) and GBM-BTICs. The data showed significantly increased expression in globins (α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε), EPO and EPOR mRNA levels under hypoxia. Globin expression is not limited to the stem cell populations or GBM-BTICs but is a property of the entire GBM population. We assumed that the total expression of mRNA of different normalized globins (α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε) at different time-points for the same cell line is 100%. Under aerobic conditions, ε globin was predominantly expressed, and then decreased gradually with increasing time in hypoxia. This was coupled to a concomitant increase in α and γ globins. Our findings suggest that hypoxic upregulation of hemoglobin expression in GBM cells may be a part of a repertoire of active defence and adaptation mechanisms enabling these cells to acquire resistance to aggressive multimodality treatments of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. New therapeutic strategies to interfere with hemoglobin expression or function in GBM cells are required.

Refaat A.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases | Abd-rabou A.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases | Reda A.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases
Oncology Letters | Year: 2014

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) therapy is anticipated to be one of the most effective cancer treatments. However, resistance to TRAIL therapy remains a challenge facing the development of anticancer strategies. To circumvent this problem, TRAIL combinations have been experimented with for over ten years to induce synergism or sensitize resistant cancer cells. By analyzing the signaling pathways triggered by these combinations, this review has defined a set of core targets for novel combinatorial treatments. The review suggests specific pathways to be targeted together with TRAIL for more efficient treatment, including cellular FLICE inhibitory protein and its downstream survival factors, the Bcl-2 family and other prominent targets. The suggested pathways provide new avenues for more effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy.

Refaat A.,University of Toyama | Refaat A.,Center for Aging and Associated diseases | Abdelhamed S.,University of Toyama | Yagita H.,Juntendo University | And 4 more authors.
Oncology Letters | Year: 2013

Berberine (BBR) has been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and also for cancer-associated symptoms such as diarrhea. Furthermore, it has been reported that BBR may have direct antitumor effects. Although evidence supports the theory that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for treating cancer, its usage may be limited due to the resistance to the TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of BBR on TRAIL-induced antitumor effects was investigated in vitro using recombinant TRAIL and in vivo using a 4T1 murine breast cancer model in combination with anti-DR5 (death-inducing TRAIL receptor) monoclonal antibody therapy. BBR sensitized human breast cancer cell lines to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in vitro. The combination of BBR and recombinant TRAIL significantly activated caspase-3 and PARP cleavage in TRAIL-resistant MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, BBR in combination with TRAIL more effectively induced apoptosis compared with coptisine (COP), which is structurally related to BBR. In a murine 4T1 breast cancer model, BBR treatment enhanced the efficacy of anti-DR5 antibody therapy against primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. Thus, BBR may become a new adjuvant for overcoming the resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL/DR5-mediated therapy.

Emara M.,University of Alberta | Emara M.,Center for Aging and Associated Diseases | Turner A.R.,University of Alberta | Allalunis-Turner J.,University of Alberta
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Hemoglobin is a hemoprotein, produced mainly in erythrocytes circulating in the blood. However, non-erythroid hemoglobins have been previously reported in other cell types including human and rodent neurons of embryonic and adult brain, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor among gliomas. However, despite extensive basic and clinical research studies on GBM cells, little is known about glial defence mechanisms that allow these cells to survive and resist various types of treatment. We have shown previously that the newest members of vertebrate globin family, neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb), are expressed in human GBM cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether hemoglobin is also expressed in GBM cells. Conventional RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate globin expression in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, M010b, U87R and U87T) that have unique characteristics in terms of tumor invasion and response to radiotherapy and hypoxia. The data showed that α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε globins are expressed in all tested GBM cell lines. To our knowledge, we are the first to report expression of fetal, embryonic and adult hemoglobin in GBM cells under normal physiological conditions that may suggest an undefined function of those expressed hemoglobins. Together with our previous reports on globins (Ngb and Cygb) expression in GBM cells, the expression of different hemoglobins may constitute a part of series of active defence mechanisms supporting these cells to resist various types of treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

PubMed | University of Alberta and Center for Aging and Associated Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2015

Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lactation. Finally, our data indicate that brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), a marker of neural stem cells, is down-regulated in the brains of six-week pups with a high DHA:AA ratio. We propose that elevated levels of DHA in developing brain accelerate brain maturation relative to DHA-deficient brains.

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