Center for Advanced Studies and Research

Kollam, India

Center for Advanced Studies and Research

Kollam, India
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Hossain S.M.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research | Anantharaman N.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Das M.,University of Calcutta
Indian Chemical Engineer | Year: 2011

Comparisons were studied for untreated and pretreated bagasse with dilute alkaline peroxide and steam for bioethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process in a continuous stirred batch bioreactor using fungi Fusarium oxysporum. The optimum parameters for bioethanol fermentation were: time, 48 h; pH, 6.0; temperature, 50°C; stirring speed, 35 rpm; and bagasse loading, 35 g/L. Maximum concentrations of bioethanol at optimum fermentation process parameters were 18.73 g/L, 19.69 g/L and 20.45 g/L for untreated, steam and dilute alkaline peroxide pretreated bagasse, respectively. Maximum yields of bioethanol were 0.706 g/g, 0.734 g/g and 0.764 g/g of bagasse at optimum parameters for untreated, steam and dilute alkaline peroxide pretreated bagasse, respectively. The sp. growth rate (μ) of fungi Fusarium oxysporum was determined at 5.91 s -1, 6.25 s -1 and 7.11 s -1 and maximum sp. growth rate (μ max) was calculated at 11.81 s -1, 12.50 s -1 and 14.22 s -1 for untreated, steam and dilute alkaline peroxide pretreated bagasse, respectively. The sp. enzyme activity (ν) was found at 138a0 min -1, 1565 min -1 and 1695 min -1 and maximum sp. activity (ν max) was calculated at 2760 min -1, 3130 min -1 and 3390 min -1 for untreated, steam and dilute alkaline peroxide pretreated bagasse, respectively. The first order rate constants (k) were determined as 0.12 h -1, 0.14 h -1 and 0.156 h -1 for untreated, steam and dilute alkaline peroxide pretreated bagasse for fermentation in continuous stirred batch bioreactor, respectively. © 2011 Copyright Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers.


Masud Hossain S.K.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research | Anantharaman N.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Das M.,University of Calcutta
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology | Year: 2012

A comparison has been made among untreated, lime pretreated and dilute alkaline peroxide pretreated wheat straw for bioethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process in a continuous stirred batch bioreactor (CSBR) using fungi Fusarium oxysporum. The optimum parameters used for the bioethanol fermentation are: time 48 h, pH 6, temperature 50, stirring speed 35, and wheat straw loading 35 g/L. Maximum yield of ethanol is found to be 0.756, 0.796 and 0.810 g/g of wheat straw under optimum conditions for untreated, lime pretreated and dilute alkaline peroxide pretreated wheat straw. The sp. fungal growth rate is found to be 5.26, 5.40, and 5.88 s -1 and maximum sp. fungal growth rate is 10.52, 10.80 and 11.76 s -1 using the Monod model for the fermentation of untreated, lime pretreated and dilute alkaline peroxide pretreated wheat straw under optimum conditions respectively. The fungal growth kinetic parameters are 33.6, 33.9 and 34.7 g/L respectively for fermentation of the three samples under the optimum conditions. The sp. carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) activity are 1185, 1455 and 1545 min -1 and maximum sp. CMCase activity are 2370, 2910 and 1545 min -1 using Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic model for the fermentation of three samples respectively under optimum conditions. The CMCase enzyme kinetic parameters are 34.3, 34.5 and 34.7 g/L for the three samples respectively under optimum fermentation conditions. Fungi Aspergillus oryzae show the better conversion of ethanol than fungi Fusarium oxysporum. The fermentation process follows the first order rate equation in CSBR.


Hossain S.M.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research | Das M.,University of Calcutta
Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2010

In the present study, attempts are made to optimize digestion time, initial feed pH, feed temperature, and feed flow rate (organic loading rate, OLR) for maximum yield of methane gas and maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of sugar industry wastewaters in three-phase fluidized-bed bioreactor. Methane gas is analysed by using flame-ionisation detector (FID). The optimum digestion time is 8 h and optimum initial pH of feed is observed as 7.5. The optimum temperature of feed is 40°C and optimum feed flow rate is 14 L/min with OLR 39.513 kg COD/m 3 h. OLR is calculated on the basis of COD inlet in the bioreactor at different flow rates. The maximum methane gas concentration is 61.56% (v/v) of the total biogas generation at optimum biomethanation process parameters. The maximum biogas yield rate is 0.835 m 3/kg COD/m 3 h with maximum methane gas yield rate (61.56%, v/v) of 0.503 m 3/kg COD/m 3 h at optimum parameters. The maximum COD and BOD reduction of the sugar industry wastewaters are 76.82% (w/w) and 81.65% (w/w) at optimum biomethanation parameters, respectively. © 2010 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering.


Hossain S.M.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research | Das M.,University of Calcutta
Indian Chemical Engineer | Year: 2010

An anaerobic three-phase fluidised-bed reactor (FBR) was used to treat distillery wastewaters for biogas generation using actively digested aerobic sludge from a sewage plant. The optimum digestion time was 8 h and optimum initial pH of feed was 7.5. The optimum temperature of feed was 40°C, optimum feed flow was 14 L/min and maximum organic loading rate (OLR) was 39.513 kg COD m -3 h -1. The OLRs were calculated on the basis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) inlet in the bioreactor at different flow rates. The maximum methane (CH 4) concentration was 63.56% (v/v) of the total biogas generation at optimum biomethanation process parameters. The maximum biogas yield rate was 0.835 m 3/kg COD m -3 h -1 with maximum CH4 yield rate (63.56% v/v) of 0.530 m 3/kg COD m -3 h -1 at optimum digestion parameters. The maximum COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction of the distillery wastewaters were 76.82% (w/w) and 81.65% (w/w), respectively, with maximum OLR of 39.513 kg COD m -3 h -1 at optimum conditions. The optimisation of these parameters enabled stable functioning of the process and allowed the application of high loading rates. This study deals with mathematical modelling of the experimental data on biomethanation and suggests model equations relating kinetic parameter (rate constant k) and maximum specific growth rate μ max with respect to COD (substrate) removal. The mathematical modelling is also analysed for hydrodynamic pressure Δp vs. feed flow u and hydrodynamic pressure Δp with respect to CH 4 gas yields. © 2010 Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers.


Hossain S.M.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2013

The product range covered by the petrochemical industry excludes major materials, like ammonium phosphate and urea; minor materials, like sulphuric acid, ammonia, phosphoric acid are manufactured as intermediate. The process of manufacturing of caprolactum in M/s Fertilizers and Chemical of Travancore Ltd., (FACT) involves the use of organic chemicals, like benzene, cyclohexane, cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol and inorganic chemicals, like hydroxylamine sulphate, oleum, ammonium sulphate and ammonium carbonate, etc. Many variable parameters of the activated sludge process, such as differences in inflow rate (Q), air flow rates, mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT), solid retention time (SRT), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loading rates are some of the distinguished characteristics of the process, making them more suitable for one application than other. Attempts were made in the aerobic activated sludge process design to optimize parameters, such as SRT, MLSS, HRT and air flow rates to obtain maximum BOD and COD removal from petrochemical industry effluents. © 2013 - Kalpana Corporation.


Hossain S.M.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2011

The aerobic pollution load (COD and BOD) removal of spent sulphite liquor using activated porous spherical charcoal prepared from neem oil cake both as adsorbent and fluidizing particle was studied in a fluidized- bed reactor. Optimum operating parameters were: Operating time, 8 hr; adsorbent dosage, 35 g; adsorbent size, 8′ 10 -3 m; pH, 5.5; temperature, 50 °C and feed flow, 10 L/ min. Maximum COD and BOD reduction from spent sulphite liquor wastewaters were observed as 85.76% (w/w) and 88.39% (w/w) at optimum parameters. © 2011 - Kalpana Corporation.


Hossain S.M.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2011

The pollution loads (COD and BOD) and colour removal of black liquor using activated spherical carbon prepared from neem oil cake as adsorbent was studied in continuous stirred batch reactor. Optimum parameters were: Contact time, 80 min; adsorbent dosage, 20 g/L; adsorbent size, 8×10 -3 m; pH, 5.5 and stirring speed, 50 rpm. Maximum COD and BOD reduction from black liquor wastewaters were observed as 91.35% (w/w) and 93.56% (w/w) at optimum parameters. Maximum colour removal from black liquor was 89.62% (OD at 465 nm) at optimum conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich, isotherms had been applied for the study. The adsorption models were fitted reasonably well with experimental data for treatment of black liquor with activated spherical carbon prepared from neem oil cake. © 2011 - Kalpana Corporation.


Hossain S.M.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2010

The pollution removal load (COD and BOD) of rubber processing industry wastewaters using activated porous spherical carbon prepared from mustard oil cake both as adsorbent and fluidizing particle was studied in a fluidized- bed reactor. The optimum adsorbent dosage was 35g and optimum adsorbent size was 5x10 -3 m, respectively. The optimum operating time was 6 hr and optimum initial pH of feed was observed as 5.5, respectively. The optimum temperature of feed was 45 °C and optimum feed flow was 10 L/min, respectively. Maximum COD and BOD reduction of rubber processing industry wastewaters were 93.56% (w/wl and 94.78% (w/w) at optimum parameters, respectively. The optimization of these parameters enables a stable functioning of the fluidized- bed reactor and allows the application of high effluent loading rates. © 2011-Kalpana Corporation.


Hossain M.,Center for Advanced Studies and Research
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2010

An anaerobic fluidized- bed bioreactor is designed to treat distillery wastewaters and simultaneous H 2 gas production using actively digested aerobic sewage sludge. The optimum digestion time is 8 hr and optimum initial pH of feed is observed as 5.5, respectively. The optimum temperature of feed is 35 °C and optimum feed flow is 14 L/min with maximum organic loading rate (OLR) is 39.513 kg COD/m 3/hr, respectively. The maximum H 2 gas concentration is 58.25% (v/v) at optimum biohydrogenation process parameters. The maximum H 2 gas yield rate is 0.764 m 3 /kg COD/m 3/hr. The maximum COD and BOD reduction of the distillery wastewaters are 76.78% (w/w) and 79.38% (w/w) with maximum OLR of 39.513 kg COD/m 3/hr at optimum conditions, respectively. The studies deal with the mathematical modeling of the experimental data on biohydrogenation and suggest model equations relating kinetic parameter (rate constant, k), maximum specific growth rate (μ max) with respect to COD (substrate) removal for performance of fluidized-bed reactor. The mathematical modeling is also analyzed for hydrodynamic pressure (Δp) vs feed flow (u) and hydrodynamic pressure (Ap) with respect to H 2 gas yields. © 2011-Kalpana Corporation.

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