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Kupper F.C.,Scottish Association for Marine Science | Feiters M.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Olofsson B.,University of Stockholm | Kaiho T.,Kanto Natural Gas Development Co. | And 7 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Iodine was discovered as a novel element in 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars. To celebrate the bicentennial anniversary of this event we reflect on the history and highlight the many facets of iodine research that have evolved since its discovery. Iodine has an impact on many aspects of life on Earth as well as on human civilization. It is accumulated in high concentrations by marine algae, which are the origin of strong iodine fluxes into the coastal atmosphere which influence climatic processes, and dissolved iodine is considered a biophilic element in marine sediments. Iodine is central to thyroid function in vertebrates, with paramount implications for human health. Iodine can exist in a wide range of oxidation states and it features a diverse supramolecular chemistry. Iodine is amenable to several analytical techniques, and iodine compounds have found widespread use in organic synthesis. Elemental iodine is produced on an industrial scale and has found a wide range of applications in innovative materials, including semiconductors-in particular, in solar cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Yoshino K.,Shimane Institute for Industrial Technology | Yoshino K.,Center for Advanced Science and Innovation | Khrapak A.G.,RAS Joint Institute for High Temperatures
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Dielectric Liquids | Year: 2011

Fluid hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen at very high pressures and temperatures demonstrate high conductivity close to the so-called "minimum metal conductivity". Electrophysical properties of these liquids in the semi-conducting transition region are practically unknown. In this work a simple model is used for estimating the bottom energy of the electron conduction band and the electron-forbidden gap energy. It is shown that electrons in liquid hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are localized as molecular negative ions surrounded by voids about 0.3-0.5 nm in radius. The conductivity of these fluids at not very high pressures is connected to the transfer of positively charged clusters and negatively charged bubbles created around negative ions. As the pressure and density increase, molecular dissociation occurs and electron localization on atoms becomes more favorable, also with the creation of a void around atomic negative ions. At a sufficiently high concentration of atoms, the probability of the tunnel transition of an electron from one atom to another becomes close to unity, the energy level of the negative ion degenerates in the band, and the conductivity is caused by the transfer of these quasifree electrons. It is supposed that this charge transfer mechanism may play an important role in the dielectric-metal transition region. © 2011 IEEE.

Takanashi Y.,Center for Advanced Science and Innovation | Orikasa Y.,Center for Advanced Science and Innovation | Mogi M.,Center for Advanced Science and Innovation | Oishi M.,Center for Advanced Science and Innovation | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

Solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films formed on Li1-xCoO 2 electrodes were observed with hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES). This paper particularly focuses on film thickness estimation using HX-PES with theoretical calculation. The validity of the calculation was proven by experiments using model SEI films. The native film formed on a LiCoO 2 composite electrode was estimated to be LiF with its thickness of 5 nm. Formation of Co (II) species on top of LiCoO2 was also indicated. Storage of the electrode at 60 °C brought about considerable film growth (30-40 nm) with carbonate compounds formation. SEI film changes during charging of the LiCoO2 electrode were also examined. The main component in the film was deduced to be LiF or a kind of fluorite, with its thickness decreased during charging. The SEI formation mechanisms are also elucidated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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