Center for Advanced Research in Public Health

Valencia, Spain

Center for Advanced Research in Public Health

Valencia, Spain
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Mira A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Martin-Cuadrado A.B.,University Miguel Hernández | D'Auria G.,University of Valencia | D'Auria G.,CIBER ISCIII | Rodriguez-Valera F.,University Miguel Hernández
International Microbiology | Year: 2010

Bacterial strains belonging to the same species vary considerably in gene content. Thus, the genetic repertoire of a given species (its "pan-genome") is much larger than the gene content of individual strains. These variations in DNA material, together with differences in genomic structure and nucleotide polymorphisms among strains, confer upon prokaryotic species a phenomenal adaptability. Although the approach of sequencing multiple strains from a single species remains the main and often easiest way to study the pan-genome, feasible alternatives include those related to DNA hybridization. In other cases, the use of metagenomic sequences is already applicable by data mining from the growing metagenomic databases. Eventually, the single-cell genome approach might be the ideal solution. The pan-genome concept has important consequences for the way we understand bacterial evolution, adaptation, and population structure, as well as for more applied issues such as vaccine design or the identification of virulence genes.

Benitez-Paez A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Benitez-Paez A.,Bioinformatics Analysis Group GABi | Belda-Ferre P.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Simon-Soro A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Mira A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Micro-organisms inhabiting teeth surfaces grow on biofilms where a specific and complex succession of bacteria has been described by co-aggregation tests and DNA-based studies. Although the composition of oral biofilms is well established, the active portion of the bacterial community and the patterns of gene expression in vivo have not been studied.Results: Using RNA-sequencing technologies, we present the first metatranscriptomic study of human dental plaque, performed by two different approaches: (1) A short-reads, high-coverage approach by Illumina sequencing to characterize the gene activity repertoire of the microbial community during biofilm development; (2) A long-reads, lower-coverage approach by pyrosequencing to determine the taxonomic identity of the active microbiome before and after a meal ingestion. The high-coverage approach allowed us to analyze over 398 million reads, revealing that microbial communities are individual-specific and no bacterial species was detected as key player at any time during biofilm formation. We could identify some gene expression patterns characteristic for early and mature oral biofilms. The transcriptomic profile of several adhesion genes was confirmed through qPCR by measuring expression of fimbriae-associated genes. In addition to the specific set of gene functions overexpressed in early and mature oral biofilms, as detected through the short-reads dataset, the long-reads approach detected specific changes when comparing the metatranscriptome of the same individual before and after a meal, which can narrow down the list of organisms responsible for acid production and therefore potentially involved in dental caries.Conclusions: The bacteria changing activity during biofilm formation and after meal ingestion were person-specific. Interestingly, some individuals showed extreme homeostasis with virtually no changes in the active bacterial population after food ingestion, suggesting the presence of a microbial community which could be associated to dental health. © 2014 Benítez-Páez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cho S.-J.,University of California at Berkeley | Cho S.-J.,Chungbuk National University | Valles Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Valles Y.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Weisblat D.A.,University of California at Berkeley
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

In sexually reproducing animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are often set aside early in embryogenesis, a strategy that minimizes the risk of genomic damage associated with replication and mitosis during the cell cycle. Here, we have used germ line markers (piwi, vasa, and nanos) and microinjected cell lineage tracers to show that PGC specification in the leech genus Helobdella follows a different scenario: in this hermaphrodite, the male and female PGCs segregate from somatic lineages only after more than 20 rounds of zygotic mitosis; the male and female PGCs share the same (mesodermal) cell lineage for 19 rounds of zygotic mitosis. Moreover, while all three markers are expressed in both male and female reproductive tissues of the adult, they are expressed differentially between the male and female PGCs of the developing embryo: piwi and vasa are expressed preferentially in female PGCs at a time when nanos is expressed preferentially in male PGCs. A priori, the delayed segregation of male and female PGCs from somatic tissues and from one another increases the probability of mutations affecting both male and female PGCs of a given individual. We speculate that this suite of features, combined with a capacity for self-fertilization, may contribute to the dramatically rearranged genome of Helobdella robusta relative to other animals. © 2013 The Author.

Camelo-Castillo A.J.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Mira A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Pico A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Nibali L.,University College London | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

The etiology of periodontitis has traditionally been associated to a consortium of three bacterial species-the so-called "red-complex" of periodontal disease-which has been the target for most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, other species have also been found to correlate with disease severity. In addition, the influence of smoking on periodontal microbiota is poorly understood. In the current manuscript, the composition of the subgingival microbiota in healthy individuals vs. patients with chronic periodontitis has been investigated using 16S pyrosequencing and the influence of smoking on periodontal composition has been examined. Subgingival bacterial communities were sampled from 82 patients: 22 non-smoking healthy controls, 28 non-smoking periodontal patients, and 32 smoking periodontal patients. Bacterial diversity was higher in periodontal patients than in healthy subjects, which could be interpreted as the consequence of a nutritionally richer environment or a reduced immune competence. Periodontal patients showed a significantly higher prevalence/relative abundance of "established" periopathogens but also other taxa whose role is not well-established and that should be targets for future research. These include Anaeroglobus, Bulleidia, Desulfobulbus, Filifactor, Mogibacterium, Phocaeicola, Schwartzia or TM7. The microbial community of smoking-associated periodontitis is less diverse and distinct from that of non-smokers, indicating that smoking has an influence on periodontal ecology. Interestingly, the high sequencing coverage allowed the detection at low proportions of periodontal pathogens in all healthy individuals, indicating that chronic periodontitis cannot be strictly considered an infectious disease but the outcome of a polymicrobial dysbiosis, where changes in the proportions of microbial consortia trigger the inflammatory and tissue-degradation responses of the host. © 2015 Camelo-Castillo, Mira, Pico, Nibali, Henderson, Donos and Tomás.

Ubeda C.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Pamer E.G.,Memorial Hospital | Pamer E.G.,Sloan Kettering Institute | Pamer E.G.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2012

The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities and decreases host resistance to antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we review recent advances that begin to define the interactions between complex intestinal microbial populations and the mammalian immune system and how this relation is perturbed by antibiotic administration. We further discuss how antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota and immune homeostasis can lead to disease and we review strategies to restore immune defenses during antibiotic administration. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Gonzalez J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Salamanca | Portillo M.C.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Salamanca | Belda-Ferre P.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Mira A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The microbial world has been shown to hold an unimaginable diversity. The use of rRNA genes and PCR amplification to assess microbial community structure and diversity present biases that need to be analyzed in order to understand the risks involved in those estimates. Herein, we show that PCR amplification of specific sequence targets within a community depends on the fractions that those sequences represent to the total DNA template. Using quantitative, real-time, multiplex PCR and specific Taqman probes, the amplification of 16S rRNA genes from four bacterial species within a laboratory community were monitored. Results indicate that the relative amplification efficiency for each bacterial species is a nonlinear function of the fraction that each of those taxa represent within a community or multispecies DNA template. Consequently, the low-proportion taxa in a community are under-represented during PCR-based surveys and a large number of sequences might need to be processed to detect some of the bacterial taxa within the 'rare biosphere'. The structure of microbial communities from PCR-based surveys is clearly biased against low abundant taxa which are required to decipher the complete extent of microbial diversity in nature. © 2012 Gonzalez et al.

Pelve E.A.,Uppsala University | Lindas A.-C.,Uppsala University | Knoppel A.,Uppsala University | Mira A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Bernander R.,Uppsala University
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2012

Replication origins were mapped in hyperthermophilic crenarchaea, using high-throughput sequencing-based marker frequency analysis. We confirm previous origin mapping in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, and demonstrate that the single chromosome of Pyrobaculum calidifontis contains four replication origins, the highest number detected in a prokaryotic organism. The relative positions of the origins in both organisms coincided with regions enriched in highly conserved (core) archaeal genes. We show that core gene distribution provides a useful tool for origin identification in archaea, and predict multiple replication origins in a range of species. One of the P.calidifontis origins was mapped in detail, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated binding of the Cdc6/Orc1 replication initiator protein to a repeated sequence element, denoted Orb-1, within the origin. The high-throughput sequencing approach also allowed for an annotation update of both genomes, resulting in the restoration of open reading frames encoding proteins involved in, e.g., sugar, nitrate and energy metabolism, as well as in glycosylation and DNA repair. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Camelo-Castillo A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Benitez-Paez A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Belda-Ferre P.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Cabrera-Rubio R.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Mira A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Genomic, taxonomic and biochemical studies were performed on two strains of α-haemolytic streptococci that showed them to be clustered with major members of the Streptococcus mitis group. These Gram-stain-positive strains were isolated from tooth surfaces of caries-free humans and showed the classical spherical shape of streptococcal species growing in chains. Sequence analysis from concatenated 16S and 23S rRNA gene and sodA genes showed that these strains belonged to the mitis group, but both of them clustered into a new phylogenetic branch. The genomes of these two isolates were sequenced, and whole-genome average nucleotide identity (ANI) demonstrated that these strains significantly differed from any streptococcal species, showing ANI values under 91 % even when compared with the phylogenetically closest species such as Streptococcus oralis and S. mitis. Biochemically, the two isolates also showed distinct metabolic features relative to closely related species, like α-galactosidase activity. From the results of the present study, the name Streptococcus dentisani sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these novel strains, which have been deposited in open collections at the Spanish type Culture Collection (CECT) and Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ), being respectively identified as Streptococcus dentisani Str. 7746 (= CECT 8313 = DSM 27089) and Streptococcus dentisani Str. 7747T (= CECT 8312T = DSM 27088T). © 2014 IUMS.

Benitez-Paez A.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Alvarez M.,University of Vigo | Belda-Ferre P.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Rubido S.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective: The current manuscript aims to determine the prevalence, duration and bacterial diversity of bacteraemia following dental extractions using conventional culture-dependent methods and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Methods: The study group included 8 patients undergoing dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 seconds and 15 minutes after the dental extractions. Blood samples were analysed for bacteraemia applying conventional microbiological cultures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as pyrosequencing using universal bacterial primers that target the 16S ribosomal DNA gene. Results: Transient bacteremia was detected by culture-based methods in one sample at baseline time, in eight samples at 30 seconds, and in six samples at 15 minutes after surgical procedure; whereas bacteraemia was detected only in five blood samples at 30 seconds after dental extraction by using pyrosequencing. By applying conventional microbiological methods, a single microbial species was detected in six patients, and Streptococcus viridans was the most frequently cultured identified bacterium. By using pyrosequencing approaches however, the estimated blood microbial diversity after dental extractions was 13.4±1.7 bacterial families and 22.8±1.1 genera per sample. Conclusion: The application of 16S rDNA pyrosequencing underestimated the prevalence and duration of bacteraemia following dental extractions, presumably due to not reaching the minimum DNA required for PCR amplification. However, this molecular technique, unlike conventional culture-dependent methods, revealed an extraordinarily high bacterial diversity of post-extraction bacteraemia. We propose that microorganisms recovered by culture may be only the tip of an iceberg of a really diverse microbiota whose viability and potential pathogenicity should be further studied. © 2013 Benítez-Páez et al.

Belda-Ferre P.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Alcaraz L.D.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Cabrera-Rubio R.,Center for Advanced Research in Public Health | Romero H.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | And 3 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2012

The oral cavity of humans is inhabited by hundreds of bacterial species and some of them have a key role in the development of oral diseases, mainly dental caries and periodontitis. We describe for the first time the metagenome of the human oral cavity under health and diseased conditions, with a focus on supragingival dental plaque and cavities. Direct pyrosequencing of eight samples with different oral-health status produced 1 Gbp of sequence without the biases imposed by PCR or cloning. These data show that cavities are not dominated by Streptococcus mutans (the species originally identified as the ethiological agent of dental caries) but are in fact a complex community formed by tens of bacterial species, in agreement with the view that caries is a polymicrobial disease. The analysis of the reads indicated that the oral cavity is functionally a different environment from the gut, with many functional categories enriched in one of the two environments and depleted in the other. Individuals who had never suffered from dental caries showed an over-representation of several functional categories, like genes for antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing. In addition, they did not have mutans streptococci but displayed high recruitment of other species. Several isolates belonging to these dominant bacteria in healthy individuals were cultured and shown to inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria, suggesting the use of these commensal bacterial strains as probiotics to promote oral health and prevent dental caries. © 2012 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

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