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Brisbane, Australia

Millard S.M.,University of Queensland | Fisk N.M.,University of Queensland | Fisk N.M.,Center for Advanced Prenatal Care
BioEssays | Year: 2013

Given their heterogeneity and lack of defining markers, it is surprising that multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have attracted so much translational attention, especially as increasing evidence points to their predominant effect being not by donor differentiation but via paracrine mediators and exosomes. Achieving long-term MSC donor chimerism for treatment of chronic disease remains a challenge, requiring enhanced MSC homing/engraftment properties and manipulation of niches to direct MSC behaviour. Meanwhile advances in nanoparticle technology are furthering the development of MSCs as vehicles for targeted drug delivery. For treatment of acute injuries, systemic cell-free exosome delivery may ultimately displace current emphasis on empiric donor-cell transplantation for anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and repair-promoting effects. Exploration of potential clinical sources of MSCs has led to increased utilisation of perinatal MSCs in allogeneic clinical trials, reflecting their ease of collection and developmentally advantageous properties. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc. Source

Seppanen E.,University of Queensland | Roy E.,University of Queensland | Ellis R.,University of Queensland | Bou-Gharios G.,University of Queensland | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The contribution of distant and/or bone marrow-derived endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to skin wounds is controversial. Bone marrow transplantation experiments employed to address this have been largely confounded by radiation-resistant host-derived MSC populations. Gestationally-acquired fetal MSC are known to engraft in maternal bone marrow in all pregnancies and persist for decades. These fetal cells home to damaged maternal tissues, mirroring endogenous stem cell behavior. We used fetal microchimerism as a tool to investigate the natural homing and engraftment of distant MSC to skin wounds. Post-partum wild-type mothers that had delivered transgenic pups expressing luciferase under the collagen type I-promoter were wounded. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was then used to track recruitment of fetal cells expressing this mesenchymal marker over 14 days of healing. Fetal cells were detected in 9/43 animals using BLI (Fisher exact p = 0.01 versus 1/43 controls). These collagen type I-expressing fetal cells were specifically recruited to maternal wounds in the initial phases of healing, peaking on day 1 (n = 43, p<0.01). This was confirmed by detection of Y-chromosome+ve fetal cells that displayed fibroblast-like morphology. Histological analyses of day 7 wounds revealed vimentin-expressing fetal cells in dermal tissue. Our results demonstrate the participation of distant mesenchymal cells in skin wounds. These data imply that endogenous MSC populations are likely recruited from bone marrow to wounds to participate in healing. © 2013 Seppanen et al. Source

Seppanen E.J.,University of Queensland | Hodgson S.S.,University of Queensland | Khosrotehrani K.,University of Queensland | Bou-Gharios G.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2012

Throughout every pregnancy, genetically distinct fetal microchimeric stem/progenitor cells (FMCs) engraft in the mother, persist long after delivery, and may home to damaged maternal tissues. Phenotypically normal fetal lymphoid progenitors have been described to develop in immunodeficient mothers in a fetus-treats-its-mother paradigm. Since stem cells contribute to muscle repair, we assessed this paradigm in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. mdx females were bred serially to either ROSAeGFP males or mdx males to obtain postpartum microchimeras that received either wild-type FMCs or dystrophin-deficient FMCs through serial gestations. To enhance regeneration, notexin was injected into the tibialis anterior of postpartum mice. FMCs were detected by qPCR at a higher frequency in injected compared to noninjected side muscle (P=0.02). However, the number of dystrophin-positive fibers was similar in mothers delivering wild-type compared to mdx pups. In addition, there was no correlation between FMC detection and percentage dystrophin, and no GFP+ve FMCs were identified that expressed dystrophin. In 10/11 animals, GFP+ve FMCs were detected by immunohistochemistry, of which 60% expressed CD45 with 96% outside the basal lamina defining myofiber contours. Finally we confirmed lack of FMC contribution to statellite cells in postpartum mdx females mated with Myf5-LacZ males. We conclude that the FMC contribution to regenerating muscles is insufficient to have a functional impact. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012. Source

Pelekanos R.A.,University of Queensland | Ting M.J.,University of Queensland | Sardesai V.S.,University of Queensland | Ryan J.M.,University of Queensland | And 6 more authors.
BMC Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Background: Fetal mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) represent a developmentally-advantageous cell type with translational potential.To enhance adult MSC migration, studies have focussed on the role of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12), but more recent work implicates an intricate system of CXCR4 receptor dimerization, intracellular localization, multiple ligands, splice variants and nuclear accumulation. We investigated the intracellular localization of CXCR4 in fetal bone marrow-derived MSC and role of intracellular trafficking in CXCR4 surface expression and function.Results: We found that up to 4% of human fetal MSC have detectable surface-localized CXCR4. In the majority of cells, CXCR4 is located not at the cell surface, as would be required for 'sensing' migratory cues, but intracellularly. CXCR4 was identified in early endosomes, recycling endosomes, and lysosomes, indicating only a small percentage of CXCR4 travelling to the plasma membrane. Notably CXCR4 was also found in and around the nucleus, as detected with an anti-CXCR4 antibody directed specifically against CXCR4 isoform 2 differing only in N-terminal sequence. After demonstrating that endocytosis of CXCR4 is largely independent of endogenously-produced SDF-1, we next applied the cytoskeletal inhibitors blebbistatin and dynasore to inhibit endocytotic recycling. These increased the number of cells expressing surface CXCR4 by 10 and 5 fold respectively, and enhanced the number of cells migrating to SDF1 in vitro (up to 2.6 fold). These molecules had a transient effect on cell morphology and adhesion, which abated after the removal of the inhibitors, and did not alter functional stem cell properties.Conclusions: We conclude that constitutive endocytosis is implicated in the regulation of CXCR4 membrane expression, and suggest a novel pharmacological strategy to enhance migration of systemically-transplanted cells. © 2014 Pelekanos et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lee E.S.M.,University of Queensland | Bou-Gharios G.,University of Queensland | Bou-Gharios G.,Imperial College London | Seppanen E.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Human Reproduction | Year: 2010

After four decades of study, the biological role of fetal microchimerism (FMC) remains elusive. Transfer of fetal cells to the mother begins soon after implantation, and increases with gestational age. FMC cells then decline after delivery, but remain detectable for years post-partum. These cells have been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis remission during pregnancy and the prevention of breast cancer by graft-versus-tumor-effects. However, any beneficial effects contrast with their suspected malevolence in triggering of systemic sclerosis after childrearing or their stromal support for tumor formation. Recent evidence that FMC cells participate in disease and tissue repair has stirred controversy on their origin. The detection of FMC cells during early embryogenesis together with the diversity of hematopoietic, mesenchymal and endothelial markers, and plasticity of morphology when integrated into various tissues, provides evidence for their stemness. However, proof of their phenotype in conventional stem cell differentiation assays has been beset with difficulty in isolating and expanding them in culture. Unraveling the function of FMC cells will provide insight into both their engagement in disease and their therapeutic potential. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source

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