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Shah S.A.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | Din S.U.,University of Balochistan | Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | Daud S.,Center for Advanced Molecular Biology | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2014

The TYR gene (MIM #6069333) is located at position 11q14.3 on the human chromosome, and encodes tyrosinase, which is expressed in melanocytes and controls the biosynthesis of melanin. Most TYR mutations eliminate the activity of tyrosinase, preventing melanocytes from producing any melanin throughout life. People with this form of albinism have white hair, light-coloured eyes and very pale skin. Some mutations in TYR reduce but do not completely eliminate tyrosinase activity, and allow some melanin to be produced. We report a Pakistani family with four members affected by oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). Blood samples were collected from all affected individuals, normal siblings and their parents. Genomic DNA was extracted, and sequence analysis of all the coding exons and adjacent intronic sequences of TYR was performed, which identified a novel missense substitution (p.Ile198Thr). Sequencing of TYR in 90 unrelated healthy individuals showed no sequence variant at this location. Our study expands the mutational spectrum of OCA1. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

Luqman M.,Sustainable Development Study Center | Javed,Institute of Industrial Biotechnology IIB | Daud S.,Center for Advanced Molecular Biology | Khan A.-U.-H.,Sustainable Development Study Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the world and both incidence and mortality rates are continuing to rise in Pakistan. However, epidemiological studies to identify common lung cancer determinants in the Pakistani population have been limited. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, 400 cases and 800 controls were enrolled from different hospitals of all provinces of Pakistan. Information about socio-demographic, occupational, lifestyle and dietary variables was extracted by questionnaire from all subjects. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. and dose-response associations were also assessed for suitable factors. Results: Strong associations were observed for smoking (OR=9.4, 95%CI=6.9-12.8), pesticide exposure (OR=5.1, 95%CI=3.1-8.3), exposure to diesel exhaust (OR=3.1, 95%CI=2.1-4.5), red meat consumption (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.8-4.7) and chicken consumption (OR=2.8, 95%CI=1.7-49). Other associated factors observed were welding fumes (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.0-6.5), sedentary living (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.6-2.6), family history (OR=2.0, 95%CI=0.8-4.9), wood dust (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.2-3.1), tea consumption (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.6), coffee consumption (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.1-2.8), alcoholism (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.1-2.5) and asbestos exposure(OR=1.5, 95%CI=0.5-4.4). Consumption of vegetables (OR=0.3, 95%CI=0.2-0.4), juices (OR=0.3, 95%CI=0.3-0.4), fruits (OR=0.7, 95%CI=0.5-0.9) and milk (OR=0.6, 95%CI=0.5-0.8) showed reduction in risk of lung cancer. Strongest dose-response relationships were observed for smoking (X2=333.8, p≤0.0000001), pesticide exposure (X2=50.9, p≤0.0000001) and exposure to diesel exhaust (X2=51.8, p≤0.0000001). Conclusions: Smoking, pesticide exposure, diesel exhaust and meat consumption are main lung cancer determinants in Pakistan. Consuming vegetables, fruits, milk and juices can reduce the risk of lung cancer risk, as in other countries.

Awan T.,University of Punjab | Iqbal Z.,University of Punjab | Iqbal Z.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences | Iqbal Z.,University of Sargodha | And 23 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Background and Objectives: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a complex genetic disease involving many fusion oncogenes (FO) having prognostic significance. The frequency of various FO can vary in different ethnic groups, with important implications for prognosis, drug selection and treatment outcome. Method: We studied fusion oncogenes in 101 pediatric ALL patients using interphase FISH and RT-PCR, and their associations with clinical features and treatment outcome. Results: Five most common fusion genes i.e. BCR-ABL t (22; 9), TCF3-PBX1 (t 1; 19), ETV6-RUNX1 (t 12; 21), MLL-AF4 (t 4; 11) and SIL-TAL1 (del 1p32) were found in 89/101 (88.1%) patients. Frequency of BCR-ABL was 44.5% (45/101). BCR-ABL positive patients had a significantly lower survival (43.7±4.24 weeks) and higher white cell count as compared to others, except patients with MLL-AF4. The highest relapse-free survival was documented with ETV6-RUNX1 (14.2 months) followed closely by those cases in which no gene was detected (13.100). RFS with BCR-ABL, MLL-AF4, TCF3-PBX1 and SIL-TAL1 was less than 10 months (8.0, 3.6, 5.5 and 8.1 months, respectively). Conclusions: This is the first study from Pakistan correlating molecular markers with disease biology and treatment outcome in pediatric ALL. It revealed the highest reported frequency of BCR-ABL FO in pediatric ALL, associated with poor overall survival. Our data indicate an immediate need for incorporation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of BCR-ABL+ pediatric ALL in this population and the development of facilities for stem cell transplantation.

Baloch A.H.,BUITEMS | Shuja J.,Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy | Daud S.,Center for Advanced Molecular Biology | Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | And 9 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Purpose: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy of females throughout the world with one million new cases each year. In Pakistan, the burden of breast cancer disease is high with late stage presentation being a common feature, more than half being stage III or stage IV. The objective of this study was to study various aspects, patterns and risk factors in breast cancer patients of Balochistan. Method: Present study was performed on 134 patients of breast cancer who were registered in CENAR. The patients were interviewed by providing a questionnaire. Informed consent was taken from all the patients who took part in this study after explanation of the study aims. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated andbiopsy reports were obtained from patients files. All the cases were classified with respect to age, gender, ethnic group (Baloch, Pashtoon, Punjabi, Afghani, Hazara) BMI, cancer type, cancer grade, hormonal status, side of the cancer, fertility and marital status. Results: Out of 134 patients, the most common ethnic group was Pashtoon with a total of 42 and the common age group was 41-50 years with a total of 51. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) was the most common type, accounting for in 128 patients (95.5%) followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Conclusion: Pashtoon was the most common ethnic group, IDC was common type and most of the patients had an ER/PR positive hormonal status.

Baloch A.H.,BUITEMS | Daud S.,Center for Advanced Molecular Biology | Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | Luqman M.,BUITEMS | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

CHEK2 encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase which plays a critical role in DNA damage signaling pathways. CHEK2 directly phosphorylates and regulates the functions of p53 and BRCA1. Most women with breast and/or ovarian cancer are not carriers of mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2. Multiple studies have shown that a CHEK2*1100delC confers about a two-fold increased risk of breast cancer in unselected females and a tenfold increase in males. Moreover, studies have shown that first-degree relatives of bilateral breast cancer cases who carried the CHEK2*1100delC allele had an eight-fold increased risk of breast cancer. It has been suggested that CHEK2 functions as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for cancers and multiplies the risks associated with other gene(s) to increase cancer risk. The main goal of this study was to evaluate and to compare the role of truncating mutations, splice junction mutations and rare missense substitutions in breast cancer susceptibility gene CHEK2. Present study was performed on 140 individuals including 70 breast cancer patients both with and without family history and 70 normal individuals. Written consent was obtained and 3 ml intravenous blood was drawn from all the subjects. DNA was extracted from all the samples through inorganic method published already. Primers were synthesized for all the 14 exons of CHEK2 gene. Coding and adjacent intronic sequences of CHEK2 gene were amplified and sequenced. Two genetic variants (p.H371Y, p.D438Y) were found in exon 10 and exon 11 of gene CHEK2 which were not found in any of the 70 control individuals from same geographical area and ethnic group. The genetic variant c.1312G>T (p.D438Y) identified in a patient with a family history of breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is first mutation scanning study of gene CHEK2 from Balochistan population. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.

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