Center for Advanced Energy Studies

Idaho Falls, ID, United States

Center for Advanced Energy Studies

Idaho Falls, ID, United States
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Tan S.,University of Wyoming | Tan S.,Center for Advanced Energy Studies | Wang L.,Idaho National Laboratory | Wang L.,Center for Advanced Energy Studies | And 5 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2017

We recently showed that phase-pure molybdenum carbide nanotubes can be durable supports for platinum (Pt) nanoparticles in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this paper we further characterize surface properties of the same Pt/β-Mo2C catalyst platform using carbon monoxide (CO)-Pt and CO-Mo2C bond strength of different Pt particle sizes in the <3 nm range. Results from diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temporal analysis of products (TAP) revealed the existence of different active sites as Pt particle size increases. Correlation between the resultant catalyst activity and deposited Pt particle size was further investigated using water-gas-shift (WGS) as a probe reaction, suggesting that precise control of particle diameter and thickness is needed for optimized catalytic activity. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Liu X.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Miao Y.,Argonne National Laboratory | Wu Y.,Boise State University | Wu Y.,Center for Advanced Energy Studies | And 3 more authors.
Scripta Materialia | Year: 2017

Here, we report atom probe tomography results of the nanoclusters in a neutron-irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened alloy. Following irradiation to 5 dpa at target temperatures of 300 °C and 450 °C, fewer large nanoclusters were found and the residual nanoclusters tend to reach an equilibrium Guinier radius of 1.8 nm. With increasing dose, evident decrease in peak oxygen and titanium (but not yttrium) concentrations in the nanoclusters was observed, which was explained by atomic weight, solubility, diffusivity, and chemical bonding arguments. The chemical modifications indicate the equilibrium size is indeed a balance of two competing processes: radiation enhanced diffusion and collisional dissolution. © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc.

Kaur M.,University of Idaho | Dai Q.,University of Wyoming | Bowden M.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Engelhard M.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

Cr-doped core-shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized at varied atomic percentages of Cr from 0 at. % to 8 at. %. The low concentrations of Cr (<10 at. %) were selected in order to inhibit the complete conversion of the Fe-oxide shell to Cr2O3 and the Fe core to FeCr alloy. The magnetic interaction in Fe/Fe-oxide NCs (∼25 nm) can be controlled by antiferromagnetic Cr-dopant. We report the origin of σ-FeCr phase at very low Cr concentration (2 at. %) unlike in previous studies, and the interaction reversal from dipolar to exchange interaction in watermelon-like Cr-doped core-shell NCs. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Kaur M.,University of Idaho | Dai Q.,University of Wyoming | Bowden M.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Engelhard M.H.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

Cr-doped core-shell iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) containing 0, 2, 5, and 8 at.% of Cr dopant were synthesized via a nanocluster deposition system and their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. We observed the formation of a σ-FeCr phase in 2 at.% of Cr doping in core-shell NPs. This is unique since it was reported in the past that the σ-phase forms above 20 at.% of Cr. The large coercive field and exchange bias are ascribed to the antiferromagnetic Cr2O3 layer formed with the Fe-oxide shell, which also acts as a passivation layer to decrease the Fe-oxide shell thickness. The additional σ-phase in the core and/or Cr2O 3 in the shell cause the hysteresis loop to appear tight waisted near the zero-field axis. The exchange interaction competes with the dipolar interaction with the increase of σ-FeCr grains in the Fe-core. The interaction reversal has been observed in 8 at.% of Cr. The observed reversal mechanism is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M value, and is supported by a theoretical watermelon model based on the core-shell nanostructure system. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

News Article | December 13, 2015

If you haven’t had enough electric vehicle news this past week, here’s a big helping of more. Retrieved from scouring the pages of the Tesla Motors Club forum (and particularly this thread), below are new (or relatively new) pictures of the Tesla Model X. I’ll group by color for you, with a section at the end for interior shots. My Thoughts On/Suggestions For Autopilot (which I use a lot) You wouldn’t think I’d get to use AP much since I live about 3 miles from work, however I do use it almost every day, although admittedly mostly on streets it isn’t supposed to be used on. All I can say it is works fabulously well and 99% of the time I’m very impressed by how well it does. This just never gets old! Here we see the Ludicrous speed Tesla Model S P90D line up alongside Ford’s premier supercar, the LeMans-inspired Ford. Like many of you, I’ve been waiting years for the X. Now it is finally within my grasp. I received my email to configure the X. My quandary is to go for the 70 or 90. The money miser side is of me is saying it’s not worth $13,000 to get an extra 37 miles of range. I realize that the air suspension is included in that price, but if I had a choice I’d pass on the air suspension… it would be rarely used! So if I go for the 70, I’d save a bunch of money and have to wait ANOTHER 6 months!!! Or do I bite the bullet and pay more so I can get it sooner with more range. What are people’s thoughts about the extra money for the extra range? Finally, after two years of talking and test drives my dream becomes reality. I want to share my experience step by step, hoping to help others. A few weeks ago at the LA Auto Show, BMW made news by announcing a partnership with NRG’s EVgo to install an additional 500 DC Fast Charge stations in 25 major US markets. The project is called the DC Fast Charge Expansion and is actually the second phase of a program started in 2014, which brought 100 DC fast charge stations to select California areas. I was there at the show for Press Preview days, and had the opportunity to sit down with basically all of the top EV infrastructure managers at BMW of North America. Seated at the table were Robert Healey, Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Manager, Idine Ghoreishian, Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Specialist, and Cliff Fietzek, Manager of Connected eMobility. We saw in a previous article that Tesla and General Motors use glycol liquid cooling to shed battery heat, and ended by saying there was room for improvement. Why? Better cooling will be needed as electric cars go to higher charging rates. These liquid cooled systems do now work OK during charging and vehicle operation, but they have a serious drawback: low heat transfer rates because of the poor heat transfer characteristics of liquid glycol. Taking a note from Tesla’s playbook, BMW recently launched a new online sales site allowing potential customers to purchase the German company’s offerings online, according to recent reports. The new online service — which has been dubbed “Retail Online” — allows customers access to all aspects of the purchase process. Even with all of the ongoing discussion concerning the persistent rumors about an autonomous electric car from Apple, the question of why exactly the company might choose to release such a product has perhaps not been explored enough. I’ve had my Gen2 for six weeks now. And slowly my EV range has been increasing. I assume it is a combination of my learning how best to drive, tires wearing in and possibly car breaking in. ??? Mitsubishi i-MiEV To Be Dropped From US Lineup Mitsubishi CEO Osamu Masuko is focusing the company’s efforts to its strengths in the US. “We are strong in SUVs and four wheel drives,” he says. “And that is what we would like to focus on as core models in the U.S. market. We have changed direction. We are going to allocate more resources to the areas where we are strong in the U.S.” That statement went along with the announcement that the oft delayed Outlander PHEV would finally make it to America in 2016. Mitsibishi also says it will bring a new electric SUV to the US in 2017. The Mitsubishi Outlander plug-in hybrid is now set to achieve a new sales record in Japan from the looks of it — with 2016’s cumulative sales now being set to almost definitely eclipse 2015’s cumulative sales. The JAC iEV5 is an all-electric car that launched in the Chinese market back in 2014, with sales beginning in earnest just earlier this year (2015) — mostly in the manufacturer’s home province of Anhui, China. The “No Charge To Charge” promotion that’s been slowly rolled out through the US over the past few years by Nissan has now made its way to the Twin Cities, going by a new press release. Mercedes In No Hurry To Make An Electric Car The automotive universe is abuzz with reports that one manufacturer or another is hard at work on a “Tesla killer” — an electric car that will challenge the Model S and Model X head to head and win. Apple, Faraday Future, Atieva, and many other startups are supposedly designing such cars. Audi is readying its electric SUV, the Q6 e-tron, for production in 2017. BMW has its mysterious i5 in the works. What about Mercedes? Where is its “Tesla killer?” A press release from Porsche says it has decided to chase Tesla, the company that Porsche knew nothing about until a few months ago, with a project dubbed Mission Eventually. Mark your 2020 calendar. The Volvo S90 sedan is built on the same chassis as the XC90 and comes with a 407 horsepower supercharged turbo engine, 4 wd, and hybrid powertrain. Audi’s upcoming e-Tron Quattro SUV (the production version) will reportedly deliver a “new standard for vehicle handling” — thereby distinguishing itself from amongst the electric SUV market of predicted release time (2018) — according to recent reports. Seems the Chevy Bolt is just the latest example of wimpy-assed dilution from concept to production. Sigh. The casual observer might mistake the Bolt for a Honda Fit, or Ford Focus hatch, or Hyundai Elantra hatch, or many other stalwarts of Mundane Motoring. TeslaMondo repeatedly says, and will say again: At this stage of the game, any EV that seeks equality with gas cars lacks ambition. Bollore Group will begin a new electric car sharing service in London in January. Starting with 10 cars, it plans to expand its fleet o 100 cars in 2016. Google Awarded 2 New Patents For Self Driving Car Technology Two new patents were recently awarded to Google that are related to its autonomous car technology, according to recent reports. The two new patents are for: interior design elements, and for external screens and speakers. The first patent pertains mostly to the sorts of design changes that are necessary if one is to remove the interior steering wheel; and the second one pertains mostly to the sorts of systems that will be needed to improve pedestrian/bicyclist awareness of the car. Electric Tuk Tuk Makes It To The Paris Climate Conference, Following A 20,000 Kilometer Journey The electric “Tuk Tuk” piloted by the Pilgreens — a group of French and German students campaigning to show the value of electric vehicles — recently finally made it to the COP21 climate talks in Paris, following on a 20,000 kilometer journey from Bangkok. Lux Research: Alternative Battery Technologies (Li-S, Solid-State, Etc) Will Hit $10 Billion Mark By 2030 While lithium-ion batteries will remain the dominant modality for at least the next decade, alternative battery technologies — lithium sulfur (Li-S), Solid-State, etc — will rapidly grow in importance over that period of time, according to a new report from Lux Research. What do you do with electric vehicle batteries once they’ve been diminished to the point that they should (possibly) be replaced? Possibly use them for/as energy storage systems? What about reusing them for other electric vehicle applications? The SEPARION P20 — a new, thinner flexible ceramic separator for lithium-ion batteries used in utility-scale and electric vehicle applications — was recently introduced by Electrovaya Inc and its wholly owned subsidiary, Litarion GmbH, according to recent reports. The electric vehicle infrastructure consortium the Open Charge Alliance has revealed that it’s decided to standardize the Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) at the open standards development organization OASIS, according to recent reports. Tesla owners on the lookout for a bed & breakfast with an electric vehicle charger in Vermont may be interested to hear that the West Hill House B&B in Warren, Vermont, has gone 100% solar and also possesses a Tesla charging station (not a supercharger of course, but rather a destination charger). I just discovered a trove of EV data from the Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Advanced Vehicle Testing Data, by the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory. Some really nice testing of EV’s, especially the i3 and LEAF. Sorry, no Tesla data. Kalmar, part of Cargotec, will introduce the first fast charging solution for electric powered shuttle and straddle carriers. The Kalmar FastCharge solution is locally emission free and can be applied to both automated and manual operation. Williams Advanced Engineering has won several awards for its innovative Formula E battery. It has only one failure in the first season in 440 race starts. Jay Leno Gets A Charge Out of Vintage Electric Bicycle Jay Leno tried a Vintage Electric bicycle recently and loved it. Workmanship is first class. It is a cruiser style machines with about 30 miles of range. A fleet of 27 brand new electric utility vehicles was recently purchased by the US Bureau of Reclamation as a means of providing transportation for federal employees working at Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Washington state, according to recent reports. Jaguar will announce next week that it is fielding a team in Formula E in cooperation with Williams Advanced Engineering. The Trulli team will withdraw. Uber is trying something new in Seattle. Instead of an individual rider linking up with an individual driver, users of the recently introduced UberHOP will walk to a specified location, wait patiently with others for their Uber ride to arrive, then all pile in and be driven along a specific route to one of several predetermined destinations. What Gets Danes Biking, Anyway? This New Study Actually Asked Them 99% of the Danish population view themselves as cyclists – many without actually cycling daily. Even a Dane had to get on a bike for the first time. Compared to the rest of the rich world, the difference is that people in Denmark are much more likely to start riding and keep it up. Why? Friday Fun: Two Maps Use Data to Help Cyclists Navigate Cities Cycling in cities, especially in areas you’re unfamiliar with, can be a stressful experience. One of the most anxiety-inducing aspects of cycling is ambiguity; it can be difficult to tell what areas of the cities have designed bike lanes, where cyclists are forced to mingle with cars, or where cyclists simply aren’t allowed. Moreover, it can be nearly impossible to anticipate where a bike rack or space to park your bicycle might be—leaving some to either get creative with their locks, or leave their bikes unprotected. Not knowing cycling routes or where one can safely lock-up a bicycle is especially daunting, since cyclists are some of the most vulnerable users of the road.    Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

Beausoleil II G.L.,Boise State University | Price P.,Boise State University | Thomsen D.,Boise State University | Punnoose A.,Boise State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Ceramic Society | Year: 2014

The thermal expansion and magnetic behaviors of divalent, alkaline-doped lanthanum ferrites (La0.9M0.1FeO3, M=Ca, Sr, Ba) were assessed using a combination of dilatometry, magnetometry, time-of-flight neutron diffraction, and hightemperature X-ray diffraction. Néel temperatures were determined through vibrating sample magnetometry and correlated well with changes in thermal expansion behavior observed during both dilatometry and X-ray diffraction. The Ńeel temperatures observed for pure, Ca-doped, Sr-doped, and Badoped lanthanum ferrites were 471°C, 351°C, 465°C, and 466°C, respectively. The effect of divalent substitutions on the magnetic behavior are attributed to charge compensation mechanisms and structural changes in the material. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

Pasebani S.,University of Idaho | Pasebani S.,Center for Advanced Energy Studies | Charit I.,University of Idaho | Charit I.,Center for Advanced Energy Studies | And 6 more authors.
Acta Materialia | Year: 2013

A novel nanostructured ferritic steel powder with the nominal composition Fe-14Cr-1Ti-0.3Mo-0.5La2O3 (wt.%) was developed via high energy ball milling. La2O3 was added to this alloy instead of the traditionally used Y2O3. The effects of varying the ball milling parameters, such as milling time, steel ball size and ball to powder ratio, on the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the as-milled powder were investigated. Nanocrystallites of a body-centered cubic ferritic solid solution matrix with a mean size of approximately 20 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Nanoscale characterization of the as-milled powder by local electrode atom probe tomography revealed the formation of Cr-Ti-La-O-enriched nanoclusters during mechanical alloying. The Cr:Ti:La:O ratio is considered "non-stoichiometric". The average size (radius) of the nanoclusters was about 1 nm, with number density of 3.7 × 1024 m-3. The mechanism for formation of nanoclusters in the as-milled powder is discussed. La2O3 appears to be a promising alternative rare earth oxide for future nanostructured ferritic steels. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

McLing T.,Idaho National Laboratory | Smith W.,Center for Advanced Energy Studies | Smith R.,University of Idaho
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014

In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO2-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at a proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO2. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO2 will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO2 driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir conditions. Our research has shown that the REE signature imparted to the formation fluid by the introduction of CO2 to the formation, can be measured and tracked as part of an MMV program. Additionally, this REE fingerprint may serve as an ideal tracer for fluid migration, both within the CCS target formation, and should formation fluids migrate into overlying aquifers. However application of REE and other trace elements to CCS system is complicated by the high salt content of the brines contained within the target formations. In the United States by regulation, in order for a geologic reservoir to be considered suitable for carbon storage, it must contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) > 10,000 ppm, and in most cases formation brines have TDS well in excess of that threshold. The high salinity of these brines creates analytical problems for elemental analysis, including element interference with trace metals in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) (i.e. element mass overlap due to oxide or plasma phenomenon). Additionally, instruments like the ICP-MS that are sensitive enough to measure trace elements down to the parts per trillion level are quickly oversaturated when water TDS exceeds much more than 1,000 ppm. Normally this problem is dealt with through dilution of the sample, bringing the water chemistry into the instruments working range. However, dilution is not an option when analyzing these formation brines for trace metals, because trace elements, specifically the REE, which occur in aqueous solutions at the parts per trillion levels. Any dilution of the sample would make REE detection impossible. Therefore, the ability to use trace metals as in situ natural tracers in high TDS brines environments requires the development of methods for pre-concentrating trace elements, while reducing the salinity and associated elemental interference such that the brines can be routinely analyzed by standard ICP-MS methods. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL-CAES has developed a rapid, easy to use process that pre-concentrates trace metals, including REE, up to 100x while eliminating interfering ions (e.g. Ba, Cl). The process is straightforward, inexpensive, and requires little infrastructure, using only a single chromatography column with inexpensive, reusable, commercially available resins and wash chemicals. The procedure has been tested with synthetic brines (215,000 ppm or less TDS) and field water samples (up to 5,000 ppm TDS). Testing has produced data of high quality with REE capture efficiency exceeding 95%, while reducing interfering elements by > 99%. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Lillo T.M.,Idaho National Laboratory | Van Rooyen I.J.,Idaho National Laboratory | Wu Y.Q.,Boise State University | Wu Y.Q.,Center for Advanced Energy Studies
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2016

Precession electron diffraction (PED), a transmission electron microscopy-based technique, has been evaluated for the suitability for evaluating grain boundary character in the SiC layer of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. This work reports the effect of transmission electron microscope (TEM) lamella thickness on the quality of data and establishes a baseline comparison to SiC grain boundary characteristics, in an unirradiated TRISO particle, determined previously using a conventional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based technique. In general, it was determined that the lamella thickness produced using the standard focused ion beam (FIB) fabrication process (∼80 nm), is sufficient to provide reliable PED measurements, although thicker lamellae (∼120 nm) were found to produce higher quality orientation data. Also, analysis of SiC grain boundary character from the TEM-based PED data showed a much lower fraction of low-angle grain boundaries compared to SEM-based EBSD data from the SiC layer of a TRISO-coated particle made using the same fabrication parameters and a SiC layer deposited at a slightly lower temperature from a surrogate TRISO particle. However, the fractions of high-angle and coincident site lattice (CSL)-related grain boundaries determined by PED are similar to those found using SEM-based EBSD. Since the grain size of the SiC layer of TRSIO fuel can be as small as 250 nm (Kirchhofer et al., 2013), depending on the fabrication parameters, and since grain boundary fission product precipitates in irradiated TRISO fuel can be nano-sized, the TEM-based PED orientation data collection method is preferred to determine an accurate representation of the relative fractions of low-angle, high-angle, and CSL-related grain boundaries. It was concluded that although the resolution of the PED data is better by more than an order of magnitude, data acquisition times may be significantly longer or the number of areas analyzed needs to be significantly greater than the SEM-based method to obtain a statistically relevant distribution. Also, grain size could be accurately determined but significantly larger analysis areas would be required than those used in this study. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All Rights Reserved.

Van Rooyen I.J.,Idaho National Laboratory | Lillo T.M.,Idaho National Laboratory | Wu Y.Q.,Boise State University | Wu Y.Q.,Center for Advanced Energy Studies
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2014

Evidence of the release of certain metallic fission products through intact tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles has been seen for decades around the world, as well as in the recent AGR-1 experiment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). However, understanding the basic mechanism of transport is still lacking. This understanding is important because the TRISO coating is part of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor functional containment and critical for the safety strategy for licensing purposes. Our approach to identify fission products in irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM), has led to first-of-a-kind data at the nano-scale indicating the presence of silver at triple-points and grain boundaries of the SiC layer in the TRISO particle. Cadmium was also found in the triple junctions. In this initial study, the silver was only identified in SiC grain boundaries and triple points on the edge of the SiC-IPyC interface up to a depth of approximately 0.5 μm. Palladium was identified as the main constituent of micron-sized precipitates present at the SiC grain boundaries. Additionally spherical nano-sized palladium rich precipitates were found inside the SiC grains. No silver was found in the center of the micron-sized fission product precipitates using these techniques, although silver was found on the outer edge of one of the Pd-U-Si containing precipitates which was facing the IPyC layer. Only Pd-U containing precipitates were identified in the IPyC layer and no silver was identified in the IPyC layer. The identification of silver alongside the SiC grain boundaries and the findings of Pd inside the SiC grains and alongside SiC grain boundaries provide important information needed to understand silver and palladium transport in TRISO fuel, which has been the topic of international research for the past forty years. The findings reported in this paper may support the postulations of recent research that Ag transport may be driven by grain boundary diffusion. However, more work is needed to fully understand the transport mechanisms. Additionally, the usefulness of the advanced electron microscopic techniques for TRISO coated particle research is demonstrated in this paper.

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