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Allenstown Elementary School, United States

Stockings E.,University of New South Wales | Degenhardt L.,University of New South Wales | Lee Y.Y.,University of Queensland | Mihalopoulos C.,Deakin University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders

Background Depression symptom screening scales are often used to determine a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) in prevention research. The aim of this review is to systematically examine the reliability, validity and diagnostic utility of commonly used screening scales in depression prevention research among children and adolescents.Methods We conducted a systematic review of the electronic databases PsycINFO, PsycEXTRA and Medline examining the reliability, validity and diagnostic utility of four commonly used depression symptom rating scales among children and adolescents: the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS). We used univariate and bivariate random effects models to pool data and conducted metaregression to identify and explain causes of heterogeneity.Results We identified 54 studies (66 data points, 34,542 participants). Across the four scales, internal reliability was 'good' (pooled estimate: 0.89, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.86-0.92). Sensitivity and specificity were 'moderate' (sensitivity: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.76-0.84; specificity: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.74-0.83). For studies that used a diagnostic interview to determine a diagnosis of MDD, positive predictive power for identifying true cases was mostly poor. Psychometric properties did not differ on the basis of study quality, sample type (clinical vs. nonclinical) or sample age (child vs. adolescent).Limitations Some analyses may have been underpowered to identify conditions in which test performance may vary, due to low numbers of studies with adequate data.Conclusions Commonly used depression symptom rating scales are reliable measures of depressive symptoms among adolescents; however, using cutoff scores to indicate clinical levels of depression may result in many false positives. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Maulik P.K.,Center for Adolescent Health | Tandon S.D.,Johns Hopkins University
Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research

Research related to mental health service use among vulnerable young adults is limited. This study used an expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to evaluate factors associated with the use of different types of mental health services among a sample of predominantly African-American 16-24 year olds (n=500) in an employment training program in Baltimore City. Results indicated that participants were more likely to have received mental health services in correctional facilities than in community- or school-based contexts. Use of mental health services in correctional facilities was significantly greater among males, those less than 18 years, and those who experienced more stressful events. Findings illustrate the need to develop seamless mental health services for vulnerable young adults in multiple contexts, including the criminal justice system. © 2010 NationalCouncil for Community Behavioral Healthcare. Source

Pearson S.,Menzies Research Institute | Schmidt M.,Menzies Research Institute | Schmidt M.,University of Georgia | Patton G.,Center for Adolescent Health | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes Care

OBJECTIVE - To examine the association between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in a sample of young adults using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to ascertain depression status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,732 participants aged between 26 and 36 years. Insulin resistance was derived from blood chemistry measures of fasting insulin and glucose using the homeostasis model assessment method. Those identified with mild, moderate, or severe depression were classified as having depressive disorder. RESULTS - The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder was 5.4% among men and 11.7% among women. In unadjusted models mean insulin resistance was 17.2% (95% CI 0.7-36.0%, P = 0.04) higher in men and 11.4% (1.5-22.0%, P = 0.02) higher in women with depressive disorder. After adjustment for behavioral and dietary factors, the increased level of insulin resistance associated with depressive disorder was 13.2% (-3.1 to 32.3%, P = 0.12) in men and 6.1% (-4.1 to 17.4%, P = 0.25) in women. Waist circumference was identified as a mediator in the relationship between depression and insulin resistance, reducing the β coefficient in the fully adjusted models in men by 38% and in women by 42%. CONCLUSIONS - A positive association was found between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in this population-based sample of young adult men and women. The association seemed to be mediated partially by waist circumference. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Steiner R.J.,Family and Reproductive Health | Sarah F.-K.,University of Kansas Medical Center | Sarah F.-K.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Dariotis J.K.,Center for Adolescent Health | Dariotis J.K.,Hopkins Population Center
American Journal of Public Health

Provider-initiated conversations with people living with HIV about reproductive plans are lacking. Providers must know whether their patients want to bear children to tailor treatment and refer for HIV preconception counseling to help achieve patients' reproductive goals while minimizing transmission to partners and children. The early focus on men who have sex with men largely excluded consideration of the epidemic's impact on reproductive health. We used a historical review of the US epidemic to describe the problem's scope and understand if this legacy underlies the current neglect of reproductive planning. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, we discuss key themes relevant to assessing and understanding attention to desires for children among HIV-positive people. We conclude with recommendations for addressing persistent stigma and enhancing patient-provider communication about reproductive intentions. © 2013 American Journal of Public Health. Source

Chan G.C.K.,University of Queensland | Kelly A.B.,University of Queensland | Toumbourou J.W.,Deakin University | Toumbourou J.W.,Center for Adolescent Health | Toumbourou J.W.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs

Objective: Heavy alcohol use increases dramatically at age 14, and there is emerging cross-sectional evidence that when girls experience family conflict at younger ages (11-13 years) the risk of alcohol use and misuse is high. This study evaluated the role of family conflict and subsequent depressed mood in predicting heavy alcohol use among adolescent girls. Method: This was a three-wave longitudinal study with annual assessments (modal ages 12, 13, and 14 years). The participants (N = 886, 57% female) were from 12 metropolitan schools in Victoria, Australia, and participants completed questionnaires during school class time. The key measures were based on the Communities That Care Youth Survey and included family conflict (Wave 1), depressed mood (Wave 2), and heavy alcohol use (Wave 3). Control variables included school commitment, number of peers who consumed alcohol, whether parents were living together, and ethnic background. Results: With all controls in the model, depressed mood at Wave 2 was predicted by family conflict at Wave 1. The interaction of family conflict with gender was significant, with girls showing a stronger association of family conflict and depressed mood. Depressed mood at Wave 2 predicted heavy alcohol use at Wave 3. Conclusions: Girls may be especially vulnerable to family conflict, and subsequent depressed mood increases the risk of heavy alcohol use. The results support the need for gender-sensitive family-oriented prevention programs delivered in late childhood and early adolescence. © 2013 Rutgers University. Source

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