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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Goldstein S.L.,Center for Acute Care Nephrology
Current Opinion in Critical Care | Year: 2015

Purpose of review Health information technology advancements have resulted in recent increased sophistication of the electronic health record, whereby patient demographic, physiological, and laboratory data can be extracted real-time and integrated into clinical decision support (CDS). Recent findings The implementation of health information technology advancements into CDS in the renal realm has been focused mainly on assessment of kidney function to guide medication dosing in the setting of reduced function or to reactively detect acute kidney injury (AKI) heralded by an abrupt increase in serum creatinine. More recent work has combined risk stratification algorithms to guide proactive diagnostic or therapeutic intervention to prevent AKI or reduce its severity. Summary Early, real-time identification and notification to healthcare providers of patients at risk for, or with, acute or chronic kidney disease can drive simple interventions to reduce harm. Similarly, screening patients at risk for AKI with these platforms to alert research personnel will lead to improve study subject recruitment. However, sole reliance on electronic health record generated alerts without active healthcare team integration and assessment represents a major barrier to the realization of the potential of CDS to improve healthcare quality and outcomes. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Ronco C.,International Renal Research Institute | Garzotto F.,International Renal Research Institute | Brendolan A.,International Renal Research Institute | Zanella M.,International Renal Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Peritoneal dialysis is the renal replacement therapy of choice for acute kidney injury in neonates, but in some cases is not feasible or effective. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines are used off label in infants smaller than 15 kg and are not designed specifically for small infants. We aimed to design and create a CRRT machine specifically for neonates and small infants. Methods We prospectively planned a 5-year project to conceive, design, and create a miniaturised Cardio-Renal Pediatric Dialysis Emergency Machine (CARPEDIEM), specifically for neonates and small infants. We created the new device and assessed it with in-vitro laboratory tests, completed its development to meet regulatory requirements, and obtained a licence for human use. Once approved, we used the machine to treat a critically ill neonate Findings The main characteristics of CARPEDIEM are the low priming volume of the circuit (less than 30 mL), miniaturised roller pumps, and accurate ultrafiltration control via calibrated scales with a precision of 1 g. In-vitro tests confirmed that both hardware and software met the specifications. We treated a 2·9 kg neonate with haemorrhagic shock, multiple organ dysfunction, and severe fluid overload for more than 400 h with the CARPEDIEM, using continuous venovenous haemofiltration, single-pass albumin dialysis, blood exchange, and plasma exchange. The patient's 65% fluid overload, raised creatinine and bilirubin concentrations, and severe acidosis were all managed safely and effectively. Despite the severity of the illness, organ function was restored and the neonate survived and was discharged from hospital with only mild renal insufficiency that did not require renal replacement therapy. Interpretation The CARPEDIEM CRRT machine can be used to provide various treatment modalities and support for multiple organ dysfunction in neonates and small infants. The CARPEDIEM could reduce the range of indications for peritoneal dialysis, widen the range of indications for CRRT, make the use of CRRT less traumatic, and expand its use as supportive therapy even when complete renal replacement therapy is not indicated. Funding Associazione Amici del Rene di Vicenza. Source

Goldstein S.L.,Center for Acute Care Nephrology | Jaber B.L.,Tufts University | Faubel S.,University of Colorado at Denver | Chawla L.S.,George Washington University
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

The incidence rate of AKI is increasing across the spectrum of hospitalized children and adults. Given the increased morbidity andmortality associated with AKI, significant research effort has been appropriately focused on standardizing AKI definitions, identifying risk factors, and discovering and validating novel, earlier structural biomarkers of kidney injury. In addition, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that AKI is a risk factor for the future development or accelerated progression of CKD. Unfortunately, prospective observational studies have not consistently followed survivors of episodes of AKI for longitudinal outcomes after hospital discharge, which could lead to ascertainment bias in terms of over- or underestimation of CKD development. Furthermore, data show that clinical follow-up of AKI survivors is low. This lack of systematic study and clinical follow-up represents a potential missed opportunity to prevent chronic disease after an acute illness and improve outcomes. Therefore, prospective study of transitions of care after episodes of AKI is needed to identifywhich patients are at risk for CKD development and to optimally target therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Nephro. Source

Goldstein S.L.,Center for Acute Care Nephrology | Chawla L.,George Washington University | Ronco C.,International Renal Research Institute | Kellum J.A.,Center for Critical Care Nephrology | Kellum J.A.,University of Pittsburgh
Critical Care | Year: 2014

Acute kidney injury (AKI) research in the past decade has mostly focused upon development of a standard AKI definition, validation of early novel biomarkers to predict AKI prior to serum creatinine rise and predict AKI severity, and assessment of aspects of renal replacement therapies and their impact on survival. Given the independent association between AKI and mortality in the acute phase, such focus makes imminent sense. More recently, the recognition that AKI is associated with subsequent development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, with the attendant increase in mortality, has led to interest in the clinical epidemiology and the mechanistic understanding of renal recovery after an AKI episode in critically ill patients. We review the current knowledge surrounding renal recovery after an AKI episode, including renal replacement therapy initiation timing and modality impact, biomarker assessment and mechanistic targets to guide potential future clinical trials. © 2014 BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Basu R.K.,Center for Acute Care Nephrology
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies | Year: 2013

Evaluate risk factors for and impact of acute kidney injury on children following the arterial switch operation. Single-center retrospective chart review. A tertiary children's hospital. A total of 92 patients receiving the arterial switch operation from 1997 to 2008 at severe acute kidney injury was defined as a 100% serum creatinine rise over baseline. Of 92 patients, 18 (20%) developed severe acute kidney injury. Neither patient age or weight nor cardiopulmonary bypass time correlated with the development of acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury was associated with the following: higher postoperative day 1 (POD1) fluid balance, higher inotrope scores (POD1 and POD2), and longer: postoperative ICU length of stay (p = 0.005), overall ICU length of stay (p = 0.05), and postoperative hospital length of stay (p = 0.006). The time to peak creatinine for acute kidney injury patients was between POD1 and POD2. Correction of serum creatinine for fluid balance increased the population defined as severe acute kidney injury and strengthened the association of acute kidney injury with postoperative morbidity. Acute kidney injury following the arterial switch operation is associated with increased morbidity. In this single center, single population, and homogenous cohort of patients, the development of acute kidney injury was not correlated with age, size, or cardiopulmonary bypass time, but was still associated with prolonged duration of ventilation and hospitalization. Notably, the failure to correct serum creatinine for fluid balance underestimates the prevalence and impact of acute kidney injury. Source

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