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Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

Richard S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Richard S.,Center Expert National Cancers Rares | Gardie B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gardie B.,University of Nantes | And 2 more authors.
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2013

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome (1/36,000 live births) with highly penetrance that predispose to the development of a panel of highly vascularized tumors (model of tumoral angiogenesis). Main manifestations include central nervous system (CNS) and retinal haemangioblastomas, endolymphatic sac tumors, clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC), phaeochromocytomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. RCC has become the first potential cause of mortality and VHL disease is the main cause of inherited RCC. The disease is caused by germline mutations in the VHL tumor-suppressor gene that plays a major role in regulation of the oxygen-sensing pathway by targeting the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF for degradation in proteasome. VHL has also major HIF-independent functions, specially in regulation of primary cilium, extracellular matrix and apoptosis. Somatic inactivation of the VHL gene is the main molecular event in most sporadic RCC and the treatment of advanced RCC has been revolutionized by targeted therapy with drugs that block angiogenesis. These drugs are now in first line in metastatic sporadic RCC and have shown promising results for RCC, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and malignant pheochromocytomas in VHL patients. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Menko F.H.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Maher E.R.,University of Cambridge | Schmidt L.S.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | Schmidt L.S.,Urologic | And 6 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2014

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant condition in which susceptible individuals are at risk for the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early onset multiple uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type 2 papillary renal cell cancer. HLRCC is caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene which inactivate the enzyme and alters the function of the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle. Issues surrounding surveillance and treatment for HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer were considered as part of a recent international symposium on HLRCC. The management protocol proposed in this article is based on a literature review and a consensus meeting. The lifetime renal cancer risk for FH mutation carriers is estimated to be 15 %. In view of the potential for early onset of RCC in HLRCC, periodic renal imaging and, when available, predictive testing for a FH mutation is recommended from 8 to 10 years of age. However, the small risk of renal cell cancer in the 10–20 years age range and the potential drawbacks of screening should be carefully discussed on an individual basis. Surveillance preferably consists of annual abdominal MRI. Treatment of renal tumours should be prompt and generally consist of wide-margin surgical excision and consideration of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The choice for systemic treatment in metastatic disease should, if possible, be part of a clinical trial. Screening procedures in HLRCC families should preferably be evaluated in large cohorts of families. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Dossus L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dossus L.,University Paris - Sud | Benusiglio P.R.,Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus | Benusiglio P.R.,Center Expert National Cancers Rares
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2015

While most invasive breast cancers consist of carcinomas of the ductal type, about 10% are invasive lobular carcinomas. Invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas differ with respect to risk factors. Invasive lobular carcinoma is more strongly associated with exposure to female hormones, and therefore its incidence is more subject to variation. This is illustrated by US figures during the 1987 to 2004 period: after 12years of increases, breast cancer incidence declined steadily from 1999 to 2004, reflecting among other causes the decreasing use of menopausal hormone therapy, and these variations were stronger for invasive lobular than for invasive ductal carcinoma. Similarly, invasive lobular carcinoma is more strongly associated with early menarche, late menopause and late age at first birth. As for genetic risk factors, four high-penetrance genes are tested in clinical practice when genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is suspected, BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and CDH1. Germline mutations in BRCA1 and TP53 are predominantly associated with invasive ductal carcinoma, while BRCA2 mutations are associated with both ductal and lobular cancers. CDH1, the gene coding for the E-cadherin adhesion protein, is of special interest as mutations are associated with invasive lobular carcinoma, but never with ductal carcinoma. It was initially known as the main susceptibility gene for gastric cancer of the diffuse type, but the excess of breast cancers of the lobular type in CDH1 families led researchers to identify it also as a susceptibility gene for invasive lobular carcinoma. The risk of invasive lobular carcinoma is high in female mutation carriers, as about 50% are expected to develop the disease. Carriers must therefore undergo intensive breast cancer screening, with, for example, yearly magnetic resonance imaging and mammogram starting at age 30 years. © 2015 applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Source

Popova T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hebert L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Jacquemin V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gad S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 42 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

The genetic cause of some familial nonsyndromic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) defined by at least two affected first-degree relatives is unknown. By combining whole-exome sequencing and tumor profiling in a family prone to cases of RCC, we identified a germline BAP1 mutation c.277A>G (p.Thr93Ala) as the probable genetic basis of RCC predisposition. This mutation segregated with all four RCC-affected relatives. Furthermore, BAP1 was found to be inactivated in RCC-affected individuals from this family. No BAP1 mutations were identified in 32 familial cases presenting with only RCC. We then screened for germline BAP1 deleterious mutations in familial aggregations of cancers within the spectrum of the recently described BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome, including uveal melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and cutaneous melanoma. Among the 11 families that included individuals identified as carrying germline deleterious BAP1 mutations, 6 families presented with 9 RCC-affected individuals, demonstrating a significantly increased risk for RCC. This strongly argues that RCC belongs to the BAP1 syndrome and that BAP1 is a RCC-predisposition gene. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Bausch B.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Wellner U.,University of Lubeck | Peyre M.,Center Expert National Cancers Rares | Peyre M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 30 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2016

Background Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are, with a prevalence of up to 16%, a component of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Data from international registries regarding heritable fraction and characteristics, germline VHL mutation frequency, and prevalence are lacking. Methods Systematic registration of ELSTs from international centers of otorhinolaryngology and from multidisciplinary VHL centers' registries was performed. Molecular genetic analyses of the VHL gene were offered to all patients. Results Our population-based registry comprised 93 patients with ELST and 1789 patients with VHL. The prevalence of VHL germline mutations in apparently sporadic ELSTs was 39%. The prevalence of ELSTs in patients with VHL was 3.6%. ELST was the initial manifestation in 32% of patients with VHL-ELST. Conclusion Prevalence of ELST in VHL disease is much lower compared to the literature. VHL-associated ELSTs can be the first presentation of the syndrome and mimic sporadic tumors, thus emphasizing the need of molecular testing in all presentations of ELST. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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