Center Esther Koplowitz

Barcelona, Spain

Center Esther Koplowitz

Barcelona, Spain
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Crisci E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Fraile L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Fraile L.,University of Lleida | Moreno N.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | And 11 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Virus-like particles (VLPs) have received considerable attention due to their potential application in veterinary vaccines and, in particular, VLPs from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) have successfully shown to be good platforms for inducing immune responses against an inserted foreign epitope in mice. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of chimeric RHDV-VLPs as vaccine vectors in pigs. For this purpose, we have generated chimeric VLPs containing a well-known T epitope of 3A protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Firstly, RHDV-VLPs were able to activate immature porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (poBMDCs) in vitro. Secondly, pigs were inoculated twice in a two-week interval with chimeric RHDV-VLPs at different doses intranasally or intramuscularly. One intramuscularly treated group was also inoculated with adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 206 at the same time. Specific IgG and IgA antibodies against RHDV-VLPs were induced and such levels were higher in the adjuvanted group compared with other groups. Interestingly, anti-RHDV-VLP IgA responses were higher in groups inoculated intramuscularly than those that received the VLPs intranasally. Two weeks after the last immunisation, specific IFN-γ-secreting cells against 3A epitope and against RHDV-VLPs were detected in PBMCs by ELISPOT. The adjuvanted group exhibited the highest IFN-γ-secreting cell numbers and lymphoproliferative specific T cell responses against 3A epitope and RHDV-VLP. This is the first immunological report on the potential use of chimeric RHDV-VLPs as antigen carriers in pigs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Center Esther Koplowitz, University of Lleida, Research Center en Sanidad Animal, Autonomous University of Barcelona and CIBER ISCIII
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular immunology | Year: 2014

Cellular therapies using immune cells and in particular dendritic cells (DCs) are being increasingly applied in clinical trials and vaccines. Their success partially depends on accurate delivery of cells to target organs or migration to lymph nodes. Delivery and subsequent migration of cells to regional lymph nodes is essential for effective stimulation of the immune system. Thus, the design of an optimal DC therapy would be improved by optimizing technologies for monitoring DC trafficking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a powerful tool for non-invasive imaging of DC migration in vivo. Domestic pigs share similarities with humans and represent an excellent animal model for immunological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility using pigs as models for DC tracking in vivo. Porcine monocyte derived DC (MoDC) culture with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles was standardized on the basis of SPIO concentration and culture viability. Phenotype, cytokine production and mixed lymphocyte reaction assay confirmed that porcine SPIO-MoDC culture were similar to mock MoDCs and fully functional in vivo. Alike, similar patterns were obtained in human MoDCs. After subcutaneous inoculation in pigs, porcine SPIO-MoDC migration to regional lymph nodes was detected by MRI and confirmed by Perls staining of draining lymph nodes. Moreover, after one dose of virus-like particles-pulsed MoDCs specific local and systemic responses were confirmed using ELISPOT IFN- in pigs. In summary, the results in this work showed that after one single subcutaneous dose of pulsed MoDCs, pigs were able to elicit specific local and systemic immune responses. Additionally, the dynamic imaging of MRI-based DC tracking was shown using SPIO particles. This proof-of-principle study shows the potential of using pigs as a suitable animal model to test DC trafficking with the aim of improving cellular therapies.

Artigas A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Wernerman J.,Karolinska University Hospital | Arroyo V.,University of Barcelona | Arroyo V.,Center Esther Koplowitz | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Critical Care | Year: 2016

The metabolism of albumin in inflammatory states such as sepsis or major surgery is complex and still not well characterized. Nevertheless, in inflammatory states, albumin synthesis has been observed to increase. By contrast, in decompensated cirrhosis, a disease characterized by systemic inflammation, albumin synthesis by the liver may decrease to 30% to 50% of normal values. Furthermore, in these conditions, there are high capillary leakage and altered albumin kinetics. The discussion regarding the effect of exogenous albumin administration on intravascular volume in inflammatory states should therefore address albumin turnover. To add complexity to our understanding of the effects of albumin, there are many data indicating that the therapeutic action of albumin is mediated not only through the impact on plasma volume expansion but also through a modulatory effect on inflammation and oxidative stress. All these characteristics are relevant to diseases associated with systemic inflammation including sepsis and decompensated cirrhosis. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Altamirano J.,University of Barcelona | Altamirano J.,Center Esther Koplowitz | Fagundes C.,University of Barcelona | Fagundes C.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Hepaticas gestivas | And 20 more authors.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe condition with high mortality. To improve therapeutic strategies, it is important to identify factors that affect survival times. The age, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and creatinine scoring system (also known as the ABIC scoring system) was developed previously to determine the prognosis of patients with AH. We studied effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) on survival of patients with AH. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 103 patients with biopsy-proven AH. AKI was defined as an abrupt reduction (within 48 h) in kidney function that resulted in an absolute increase of at least 0.3 mg/dL (or a 50% increase) in serum levels of creatinine from baseline (the AKI network [AKIN] criteria). Results: Twenty-nine patients (28%) developed AKI during hospitalization, with a median time to diagnosis of 3 days. Overall 90-day mortality was 23%, which was significantly higher among patients with AKI than those without (65% vs 7%; P < .0001). The age, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and creatinine score (P < .0001) and development of AKI (P < .0001) were the most accurate independent predictors of 90-day mortality. The presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (P < .0001), serum bilirubin (P = .01), and international normalized ratio at admission (P = .03) were the most accurate predictors of AKI. Importantly, the AKIN criteria were more accurate than traditional criteria for renal failure (serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL) in predicting 90-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.83 vs 0.70, respectively; P = .02). Conclusions: Development of AKI reduces survival of patients with AH, in the short term. The AKIN criteria are useful and more accurate than traditional criteria in predicting mortality. Strategies to prevent AKI therefore should be considered in the management of patients with AH. © 2012 AGA Institute.

Barron N.,Dublin City University | Keenan J.,Dublin City University | Gammell P.,Dublin City University | Gammell P.,Pfizer | And 5 more authors.
Prostate | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND Radical prostatectomy cures the majority of men with clinically localized disease, but up to 30% of men relapse with rising serum PSA levels. Stage, Gleason grade, and pre-operative PSA levels are associated with outcome but do not accurately predict which individuals will relapse. MicroRNA (miRNA) levels are altered in cancer and are associated with progression of disease. The miR-200 family has roles in prostate cancer. METHODS miR-200a levels were measured in 18 radical prostatectomy samples from men who did not relapse and from 18 who did relapse, matched for stage (all T3), grade, and PSA levels. A pair of cancer and normal prostate cell lines derived from the same radical prostatectomy specimen were transfected with miR-200a to determine the effects on growth, wound healing, and invasion. RESULTS Comparing the matched samples, 11 of the relapsers contained lower, 2 higher and 5 similar levels to the non-relapsers. Transient transfection of miR-200a significantly reduced cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell lines but did not affect invasiveness. CONCLUSION miR-200a overexpression reduced prostate cancer cell growth and may have potential, in combination with other markers, in stratifying prostate cancer patients for more intensive monitoring and therapy. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Chapman C.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Sun X.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Roschewski M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Aue G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malignancy of mature B cells, is incurable with chemotherapy. Signals from the microenvironment support leukemic cell survival and proliferation and may confer chemotherapy resistance. ON 01910.Na (Rigosertib), a multikinase phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, is entering phase III trials for myelodysplastic syndrome. Our aim was to analyze the efficacy of ON 01910.Na against CLL cells in vitro and investigate the molecular effects of this drug on tumor biology. Experimental Design: Cytotoxicity of ON 01910.Na against CLL cells from 34 patients was determined in vitro with flow cytometry of cells stained with Annexin V and CD19. Global gene expression profiling on Affymetrix microarrays, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and cocultures with stroma cells were used to delineate ON 01910.Na mechanism of action. Results: ON 01910.Na induced apoptosis in CLL B cells without significant toxicity against T cells or normal B cells. ON 01910.Na was equally active against leukemic cells associated with a more aggressive disease course [immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region unmutated, adverse cytogenetics] than against cells without these features. Gene expression profiling revealed two main mechanisms of action: PI3K/AKT inhibition and induction of ROS that resulted in an oxidative stress response through activating protein 1 (AP-1), c-jun-NH 2-terminal kinase, and ATF3 culminating in the upregulation of NOXA. ROS scavengers and shRNA mediated knockdown of ATF3- and NOXA-protected cells from drug-induced apoptosis. ON 01910.Na also abrogated the prosurvival effect of follicular dendritic cells on CLL cells and reduced SDF-1-induced migration of leukemic cells. Conclusions: These data support the clinical development of ON 01910.Na in CLL. ©2012 AACR.

Arroyo V.,Center Esther Koplowitz | Garcia-Martinez R.,EASL Cronic Liver Failure Consortium | Salvatella X.,Barcelona Institute for Research in Biomedicine
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2014

Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the most frequent treatments in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction, prevention of type-1 HRS associated with bacterial infections, and treatment of type-1 hepatorenal syndrome are the main indications. In these indications treatment with HSA is associated with improvement in survival. Albumin is a stable and very flexible molecule with a heart shape, 585 residues, and three domains of similar size, each one containing two sub-domains. Many of the physiological functions of HSA rely on its ability to bind an extremely wide range of endogenous and exogenous ligands, to increase their solubility in plasma, to transport them to specific tissues and organs, or to dispose of them when they are toxic. The chemical structure of albumin can be altered by some specific processes (oxidation, glycation) leading to rapid clearance and catabolism. An outstanding feature of HSA is its capacity to bind lipopolysaccharide and other bacterial products (lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan), reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and other nitrogen reactive species, and prostaglandins. Binding to NO and prostaglandins are reversible, so they can be transferred to other molecules at different sites from their synthesis. Through these functions, HSA modulates the inflammatory reaction. Decompensated cirrhosis is a disease associated systemic inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ or system dysfunction/failure. Although, the beneficial effects of HAS have been traditionally attributed to plasma volume expansion, they could also relate to its effects modulating systemic and organ inflammation.

PubMed | Center Esther Koplowitz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current drug targets | Year: 2016

CD6, one of the first antigens to be identified on T cells, is a membrane glycoprotein that physically associates with the antigen receptor complex. Because of this, its main function seems to involve the modulation of TCR-mediated signaling pathways. However, growing evidence indicates that this ancient and conserved scavenger-like receptor may also play a role as pattern recognition receptor (PRR), similar to other members of the scavenger receptor cysteine rich superfamily (SRCR-SF). Here, we discuss the functional interactions of CD6 with microbe- and damage-associated signals and the potential use of soluble forms of CD6 in the therapeutic treatment of bacterial infections, in particular multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. Importantly, microbe recognition by CD6 may also have functional consequences on T cell activation and differentiation, which remain to be explored.

PubMed | Center Esther Koplowitz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Diabetologia | Year: 2012

Manoeuvres aimed at increasing beta cell mass have been proposed as regenerative medicine strategies for diabetes treatment. Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein 1 (RKIP1) is a common regulatory node of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor B (NF-B) pathways and therefore may be involved in regulation of beta cell homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of RKIP1 in the control of beta cell mass and function.Rkip1 (also known as Pebp1) knockout (Rkip1 (-/-)) mice were characterised in terms of pancreatic and glucose homeostasis, including morphological and functional analysis. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were examined, followed by assessment of glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and beta cell mass quantification through morphometry. Further characterisation included determination of endocrine and exocrine proliferation, apoptosis, MAPK activation and whole genome gene expression assays. Capacity to reverse a diabetic phenotype was assessed in adult Rkip1 (-/-) mice after streptozotocin treatment.Rkip1 (-/-) mice exhibit a moderately larger pancreas and increased beta cell mass and pancreatic insulin content, which correlate with an overall improvement in whole body glucose tolerance. This phenotype is established in young postnatal stages and involves enhanced cellular proliferation without significant alterations in cell death. Importantly, adult Rkip1 (-/-) mice exhibit rapid reversal of streptozotocin-induced diabetes compared with control mice.These data implicate RKIP1 in the regulation of pancreatic growth and beta cell expansion, thus revealing RKIP1 as a potential pharmacological target to promote beta cell regeneration.

PubMed | Center Esther Koplowitz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) | Year: 2011

The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF) members are transmembrane and/or secreted receptors exhibiting one or several repeats of a cysteine-rich protein module of 100 aa, named scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR). Two types of SRCR domains (A or B) have been reported, which differ in the number of coding exons and intradomain cysteines. Although no unifying function has been reported for SRCR-SF members, recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) was recently shown for some of them. In this article, we report the structural and functional characterization of mouse S5D-SRCRB, a new group B member of the SRCR-SF. The s5d-srcrb gene maps at mouse chromosome 7 and encompasses 14 exons extending over 15 kb. The longest cDNA sequence found is 4286 bp in length and encodes a mature protein of 1371 aa, with a predicted M(r) of 144.6 kDa. Using an episomal mammalian-expression system, a glycosylated soluble recombinant form >200 kDa was obtained and used as immunogen for the generation of specific rat mAbs. Subsequent immunohistochemical and real-time PCR analysis showed significant S5D-SRCRB expression in murine genitourinary and digestive tracts. S5D-SRCRB was shown to bind endogenous extracellular matrix proteins (laminin and galectin-1), as well as PAMPs present on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. PAMP binding by S5D-SRCRB induced microbial aggregation and subsequent inhibition of PAMP-induced cytokine release. These abilities suggest that S5D-SRCRB might play a role in the innate defense and homeostasis of certain specialized epithelial surfaces.

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