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Gannier A.,British Petroleum | Fuchs S.,British Petroleum | Quebre P.,Center Doceanologie Of Marseille | Oswald J.N.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2010

Whistles from five delphinid species in the western Mediterranean Sea (Stenella coeruleoalba, Grampus griseus, Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus, Globicephala melas) were taken from CREC sound archives. FFT contours (window size 512, Hanning, sampling frequency 44.1 kHz) were extracted with custom developed Matlab software: 277 samples of striped dolphins (Sc), 158 whistles of Risso's dolphins (Gg), 120 of common dolphins (Dd), 76 of bottlenose dolphins (Tt), and 66 of pilot whales (Gm) were selected. Seafox software extracted 15 variables from the digitized contours, including: duration, initial, final, maximal and minimal frequency slopes, frequency range, number of frequency extrema, beginning, ending, maximal and minimal frequencies, presence of harmonics. Four of five species were significantly different (Mann-Whitney test) for average durations (respectively 0.73, 0.65, 0.47 and 0.89 s for Sc, Gg, Dd, Gm) while the average duration of bottlenose dolphins was 0.71 s. Frequency ranges (respectively 7.3, 6.3, 4.6, 3.2 and 6.3 kHz) were significantly different for all species pairs, with the exception of bottlenose and Risso's dolphins. From a global point of view, pilot whale calls were the most distinct, with 43 significant pair-wise tests out of a total of 52, followed by the common dolphins. Risso's dolphins were closest to other species whistles. A CART classification method achieved a global classification rate of 62.9%. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Roue M.,Laboratoire Molecules Of Communication Et Adaptation Des Microorganismes | Domart-Coulon I.,Laboratoire Biologie des Organismes et des Ecosystemes Aquatiques | Ereskovsky A.,Saint Petersbourg State University | Djediat C.,Service de Microscopie Electronique | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2010

Chemical investigation of the Mediterranean calcareous sponge Clathrina clathrus led to the isolation of large amounts of a new 2-aminoimidazole alkaloid, named clathridimine (1), along with the known clathridine (2) and its zinc complex (3). The structure of the new metabolite was assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis. Clathridimine (1) displayed selective anti-Escherichia coli and anti-Candida albicans activities. Clathridine (2) showed only anti-Candida albicans activity, and its zinc complex (3) exhibited selective anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity. The isolation of analogues of 2-amino-imidazole derivatives from several Leucetta species from various sites in the Pacific Ocean and the Red Sea raises the question of their biosynthetic origin. Microscopic studies revealed abundant extracellular bacteria located in the mesohyl of the sponge, with two predominant morphotypes including spiral bacteria and long, narrow bacilli. Chemical analysis with HPLC/UV/ELSD profiles of sponge cells separated from bacteria by differential centrifugation and trypsinization of the sponge cell surface revealed that clathridine (2) was localized in the sponge cells. © 2010 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy. Source

Park Y.-H.,French Natural History Museum | Durand I.,French Natural History Museum | Kestenare E.,University Paul Sabatier | Rougier G.,Center Doceanologie Of Marseille | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans | Year: 2014

The circulation of iron-rich shelf waters around the Kerguelen Islands plays a crucial role for a climatically important, annually recurrent phytoplankton spring bloom over the sluggish shelf region and its downstream plume area along the Antarctic circumpolar flow. However, there is a long-standing confusion about the Polar Front (PF) in the Kerguelen region due to diverse suggestions in the literature for its geographical location with an extreme difference over 10 of latitude. Based on abundant historical hydrographic data, the in situ hydrographic and current measurements during the 2011 KEOPS2 cruise, satellite chlorophyll images, and altimetry-derived surface velocity fields, we determine and validate an up-to-date location of the PF around the Kerguelen Islands. Artificial Lagrangian particle trajectories computed from altimetric velocity time series are analyzed for the possible pathways and sources of different surface/subsurface waters advected into the chlorophyll bloom area east off the islands studied during the KEOPS2 cruise. The PF location determined as the northernmost boundary of the Winter Water colder than 2°C, which is also associated with a band of strong currents, appears to be primarily controlled by topography. The PF rounds the Kerguelen Islands from the south to deflect northward along the eastern escarpment up to the northeastern corner of the Kerguelen Plateau before making its southward retroflection. It is shown that the major surface/subsurface waters found within the deep basin east of the Kerguelen Islands originate from the shelf around the Heard Island, rather than from the shallow shelf north of the Kerguelen Islands. © 2014. The Authors. Source

Boufahja F.,University of Carthage | Vitiello P.,Center Doceanologie Of Marseille | Aissa P.,University of Carthage
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

This work provides an inventory of species of free-living nematodes from Tunisian waters, based on samples collected from September 1977 until March 2013. Sediment samples were taken from 8 ecosystems: the Lagoons of Bizerte, Ghar El Melh and Bou Ghrara, Northern and Southern Lakes of Tunis, Old Harbor of Bizerte, Bizerte Bay and Ichkeul Lake. A total of 31 families, 133 genera, and 249 species of marine nematodes are currently known from Tunisia. The Xyalidae (with 30 species), Cyatholaimidae (25), Chromadoridae and Linhomoeidae (each 21) and Comesomatidae (20) are the richest families. Among them, Daptonema (with 9 species), Pomponema and Sabatieria (with 7 each) are the most spe-cies-rich genera. Some species were recovered only from a specific type of ecosystem. In detail, 109 species were recovered from lagoons, 56 species from sandy beaches and 6 species from mudflats. The 78 remaining species were widely distributed in Tunisian waters and four of these (Terschellingia longicaudata, Oncholaimus campylocercoides, Sabatieria pulchra and Theristus flevensis) were present in most of the 8 ecosystems studied. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Rontani J.-F.,Center Doceanologie Of Marseille | Wakeham S.G.,Skidaway Institute of Oceanography | Prahl F.G.,Oregon State University | Vaultier F.,Center Doceanologie Of Marseille | Volkman J.K.,CSIRO
Organic Geochemistry | Year: 2011

The U37K' index is widely used to infer paleo-sea surface temperatures from the relative abundances of sedimentary 37:3 and 37:2 methyl alkenones. However, the measurements can be difficult and error prone when the alkenones are present in only trace amount, when one is much more abundant than the other, or when co-eluting compounds are present. Silylated alkenols can be analyzed by way of gas chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) with much greater sensitivity and specificity than the parent alkenones and near-baseline resolution can be obtained without the use of very long chromatographic columns and/or slow temperature programs. We show, using particulate matter from the Black Sea and the DYFAMED site in the Ligurian Sea, and surface sediments from the Black Sea and SE Alaska, that conversion of C 37 alkenones to alkenols using NaBH 4 reduction and subsequent derivatization to TMSi ethers allows U37K' values to be reliably calculated without time consuming purification steps, using the relative abundances of the diagnostic m/z 117 ion. The response factor for m/z 117 varies for 37:3 and 37:2 alkenols, so a specific correction is required. The reduction method is easy to use, highly sensitive and widely applicable. Ethyl alkenols give a characteristic ion at m/z 131 and, if NaBD 4 is used, the ions at m/z 117 and 131 shift to m/z 118 and 132, providing further confirmation of the structures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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