Center dInvestigation Clinique Biotherapie 507

Villejuif, France

Center dInvestigation Clinique Biotherapie 507

Villejuif, France
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Viaud S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Viaud S.,University Paris - Sud | Daillere R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Daillere R.,University Paris - Sud | And 18 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2014

The impact of gut microbiota in eliciting innate and adaptive immune responses beneficial for the host in the context of effective therapies against cancer has been highlighted recently. Chemotherapeutic agents, by compromising, to some extent, the intestinal integrity, increase the gut permeability and selective translocation of Gram-positive bacteria in secondary lymphoid organs. There, anticommensal pathogenic Th17 T-cell responses are primed, facilitating the accumulation of Th1 helper T cells in tumor beds after chemotherapy as well as tumor regression. Importantly, the redox equilibrium of myeloid cells contained in the tumor microenvironment is also influenced by the intestinal microbiota. Hence, the anticancer efficacy of alkylating agents (such as cyclophosphamide) and platinum salts (oxaliplatin, cis-platin) is compromised in germ-free mice or animals treated with antibiotics. These findings represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mode of action of many compounds having an impact on the host-microbe mutualism.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 16 May 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.56.


Viaud S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Viaud S.,University Paris - Sud | Daillere R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Daillere R.,University Paris - Sud | And 10 more authors.
OncoImmunology | Year: 2014

Cyclophosphamide, one of the most efficient tumoricidal, antiangiogenic, and immunostimulatory drugs employed to date mediates part of its effects through intestinal bacteria, against which the host becomes immunized during treatment. Our recent work suggests that anti-commensal effector pTH17 and memory TH1 CD4+ T-cell responses are indispensable for optimal anticancer effects as mediated by cyclophosphamide. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.


Viaud S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Viaud S.,University Paris - Sud | Daillere R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Daillere R.,University Paris - Sud | And 12 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Distinct cytotoxic agents currently used in the oncological armamentarium mediate their clinical benefit by influencing, directly or indirectly, the immune system in such a way that innate and adaptive immunity contributes to the tumoricidal activity. Now, we bring up evidence that both arms of anticancer immunity can be triggered through the intervention of the intestinal microbiota. Alkylating agents, such as cyclophosphamide, set up the stage for enhanced permeability of the small intestine, facilitating the translocation of selected arrays of Gram-positive bacteria against which the host mounts effector pTh17 cells and memory Th1 responses. In addition, gut commensals, through lipopolysaccharide and other bacterial components, switch the tumor microenvironment, in particular the redox equilibrium and the TNF production of intratumoral myeloid cells during therapies with platinum salts or intratumoral TLR9 agonists combined with systemic anti-IL10R Ab respectively. Consequently, antibiotics can compromise the efficacy of certain chemotherapeutic or immunomodulatory regimens. ©2014 AACR.


Aranda F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Aranda F.,University of Paris Descartes | Bloy N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bloy N.,University of Paris Descartes | And 22 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2015

cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP), which is mostly referred to as cisplatin, is a widely used antineoplastic. The efficacy of cisplatin can be improved by combining it with the vitamin B6 precursor pyridoxine. Here, we evaluated the putative synergistic interaction of CDDP with pyridoxine in the treatment of an orthotopic mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CDDP and pyridoxine exhibited hyperadditive therapeutic effects. However, this synergy was only observed in the context of an intact immune system and disappeared when the otherwise successful drug combination was applied to the same NSCLC cancer implanted in the lungs of athymic mice (which lack T lymphocytes). Immunocompetent mice that had been cured from NSCLC by the combined regimen of CDDP plus pyridoxine became resistant against subcutaneous rechallenge with the same (but not with an unrelated) cancer cell line. In vitro, CDDP and pyridoxine did not only cause synergistic killing of NSCLC cells but also elicited signs of immunogenic cell death including an endoplasmic reticulum stress response and exposure of calreticulin at the surface of the NSCLC cells. NSCLC cells treated with CDDP plus pyridoxine in vitro elicited a protective anticancer immune response upon their injection into immunocompetent mice. Altogether, these results suggest that the combined regimen of cisplatin plus pyridoxine mediates immune-dependent antineoplastic effects against NSCLC. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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