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Lambert-Niclot S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Peytavin G.,Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital | Duvivier C.,Center dInfectiologie Necker Pasteur | Duvivier C.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 10 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

HIV-1 RNA level and darunavir concentration in the genital tract were measured in 45 men receiving darunavir-ritonavir mono- or tritherapy. At week 48, a low frequency (3/45) of HIV-1 RNA shedding was observed in patients (1 on monotherapy and 2 on triple therapy), although they had undetectable HIV-1 RNA in plasma. The median darunavir seminal plasma concentration was close to the blood plasma free fraction, demonstrating a good penetration of darunavir into the male genital tract. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Service de Parasitologie Mycologie., Unite dImmunologie, University of Burgundy, Unite de Parasitologie Mycologie and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Background. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in invasive fungal diseases (IFD). Serum (1-3)--d-glucan (BG) is believed to be an early IFD marker, but its diagnostic performance has been ambiguous, with insufficient data regarding sensitivity at the time of IFD diagnosis (TOD) and according to outcome. Whether its clinical utility is equivalent for all types of IFD remains unknown. Methods. We included 143 patients with proven or probable IFD (49 invasive candidiasis, 45 invasive aspergillosis [IA], and 49 rare IFD) and analyzed serum BG (Fungitell) at TOD and during treatment. Results. (1-3)--d-glucan was undetectable at TOD in 36% and 48% of patients with candidemia and IA, respectively; there was no correlation between negative BG results at TOD and patients characteristics, localization of infection, or prior antifungal use. Nevertheless, patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans were more likely to test positive for BG at TOD (odds ratio = 25.4, P = .01) than patients infected with other Candida species. In 70% of the patients with a follow-up, BG negativation occurred in >1 month for candidemia and >3 months for IA. A slower BG decrease in patients with candidemia was associated with deep-seated localizations (P = .04). Thirty-nine percent of patients with rare IFD had undetectable BG at TOD; nonetheless, all patients with chronic subcutaneous IFD tested positive at TOD. Conclusions. Undetectable serum BG does not rule out an early IFD, when the clinical suspicion is high. After IFD diagnostic, kinetics of serum BG are difficult to relate to clinical outcome.


PubMed | Service des Soins Continus de Chirurgie, University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne, Limoges University Hospital Center, University of Angers and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2014

Because infectious diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the majority of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), the application of a prophylactic regimen is often necessary. However, because of the variety of PIDs and pathogens involved, and because evidence is scarce, practices are heterogeneous. To homogenize practices among centers, the French National Reference Center for PIDs aimed at elaborating recommendations for anti-infectious prophylaxis for the most common PIDs. We performed a literature review of infectious complications and prophylactic regimens associated with the most frequent PIDs. Then, a working group including different specialists systematically debated about chemoprophylaxis, immunotherapy, immunization, and recommendations for patients. Grading of prophylaxis was done using strength of recommendations (decreasing from A to D) and evidence level (decreasing from I to III). These might help infectious diseases specialists in the management of PIDs and improving the outcome of patients with PIDs.


Leroy O.,Coty | Mira J.P.,Service de Reanimation Medicale | Mira J.P.,University of Paris Descartes | Montravers P.,Center Hospitalier University Bichat Claude Bernard | And 6 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2010

Introduction: Candidemia raises numerous therapeutic issues for intensive care physicians. Epidemiological data that could guide the choice of initial therapy are still required. This analysis sought to compare the characteristics of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species with those of ICU patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans.Methods: A prospective, observational, multicenter, French study was conducted from October 2005 to May 2006. Patients exhibiting candidemia developed during ICU stay and exclusively due either to one or more non-albicans Candida species or to C. albicans were selected. The data collected included patient characteristics on ICU admission and at the onset of candidemia.Results: Among the 136 patients analyzed, 78 (57.4%) had candidemia caused by C. albicans. These patients had earlier onset of infection (11.1 ± 14.2 days after ICU admission vs. 17.4 ± 17.7, p = 0.02), higher severity scores on ICU admission (SOFA: 10.4 ± 4.7 vs. 8.6 ± 4.6, p = 0.03; SAPS II: 57.4 ± 22.8 vs. 48.7 ± 15.5, P = 0.015), and were less often neutropenic (2.6% vs. 12%, p = 0.04) than patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species.Conclusions: Although patients infected with Candida albicans differed from patients infected with non-albicans Candida species for a few characteristics, no clinical factor appeared pertinent enough to guide the choice of empirical antifungal therapy in ICU. © 2010 Leroy et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Freund R.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Le Ray C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Le Ray C.,University of Paris Descartes | Charlier C.,University of Paris Descartes | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: In October 2009, the French government organized a national-wide, free of charge vaccination campaign against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, especially targeting pregnant women, a high risk group for severe illness. The study objective was to evaluate pandemic flu vaccine uptake and factors associated with non-vaccination in a population of pregnant women. Methodology/Principal Findings: In a prospective cohort conducted in 3 maternity hospitals in Paris, 882 pregnant women were randomly included between October 12, 2009 and February 3, 2010, with the aim to study characteristics of pandemic influenza during pregnancy. At inclusion, socio-demographic, medical, obstetrical factors and those associated with a higher risk of flu exposition and disease-spreading were systematically collected. Pandemic flu vaccine uptake was checked until delivery. 555 (62.9%) women did not get vaccinated. Determinants associated with non-vaccination in a multivariate logistic regression were: geographic origin (Sub-Saharan African origin, adjusted Odd Ratio aOR = 5.4[2.3-12.7], North African origin, aOR = 2.5[1.3-4.7] and Asian origin, aOR = 2.1[1.7-2.6] compared to French and European origin) and socio-professional categories (farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, aOR = 2.3[2.0-2.6], intermediate professionals, aOR = 1.3[1.0-1.6], employees and manual workers, aOR = 2.5[1.4-4.4] compared to managers and intellectual professionals). The probability of not receiving pandemic flu vaccine was lower among women vaccinated against seasonal flu in the previous 5 years (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8]) and among those who stopped smoking before or early during pregnancy (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8]). Number of children less than 18 years old living at home, work in contact with children or in healthcare area, or professional contact with the public, were not associated with a higher vaccine uptake. Conclusions/Significance: In this cohort of pregnant women, vaccine coverage against pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 flu was low, particularly in immigrant women and those having a low socio-economic status. To improve its effectiveness, future vaccination campaign for pregnant women should be more specifically tailored for these populations. © 2011 Freund et al.


Allavena C.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Delpierre C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Cuzin L.,University Hospital | Rey D.,University of Strasbourg | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D) status in an HIV-infected adult population and to define HIV- and antiretroviral-related factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Methods: Using data from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adult patients followed in five French centres (Dat'AIDS cohort), we evaluated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (<30 ng/mL). A multiple linear regression model was used to examine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency (≤10 ng/mL). Results: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was observed in 86.7% of the 2994 patients, including 55.6% with vitamin D insufficiency and 31.1% with vitamin D deficiency. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were current smoking [adjusted OR (aOR) 1.55], estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (aOR 1.51), vitamin D measurement not performed in summer (aOR 0.27), CD4 <350 cells/mm3 (aOR 1.37 for CD4 200 to <350 and 1.62 for CD4 <200 cells/mm3) and antiretroviral therapy (aOR 2.61). Gender, body mass index, age, coinfection and previous AIDS were not associated factors. In the antiretroviral-treated population (n = 2660), besides the same factors found in the whole population, efavirenz was the only drug to be significantly associated with deficiency, with an aOR of 1.89 (95% CI 1.45-2.47). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in this HIV-infected population. Patients on antiretroviral therapy are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency than antiretroviral-naive patients, with an increased risk in patients receiving efavirenz. No effect of the other antiretrovirals, including the latest (etravirine, darunavir, raltegravir), was found. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Theodoropoulos N.,Northwestern University | Lanternier F.,Center dinfectiologie Necker Pasteur | Rassiwala J.,Northwestern University | Mcnatt G.,Northwestern Memorial Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Transplant Infectious Disease | Year: 2012

Background. Tuberculosis (TB) reactivation is a rare but significant complication of organ transplantation, and screening of all transplant candidates for latent infection is recommended with either an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) or tuberculin skin test (TST). Methods. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively collected data to describe the yield of transplant candidate screening using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) assays since the institution of TB screening in 2008 and the epidemiology of all cases of post-transplant TB in our institution since 2004. Results. A total of 2392 patients were screened with either the QFT or QFT-IT assay through October 2009; 245 (10.2%) tested positive and 206 (8.6%) were indeterminate. Of those with positive results, 107 (43.7%) were foreign born and most of the remainder had prior TB exposures. Of the tests performed at a reference lab, 29% were indeterminate, whereas 14% were indeterminate using our in-house lab. The majority of indeterminate results were seen in liver transplant candidates (40.6% vs. 11.8% in non-liver candidates). Three of 694 (0.43%) screened patients who underwent transplantation developed TB post transplant. Conclusions. Post-transplant TB occurs at a low rate with universal IGRA-based candidate screening, which is comparable to studies using TST screening. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


De Castro N.,University Paris Diderot | Mazoyer E.,University Paris Diderot | Porcher R.,University Paris Diderot | Raffoux E.,University Paris Diderot | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

We report a retrospective study of 24 patients with haematological malignancy and hepatosplenic candidiasis. Clinical and biological features were similar to previous reports. No patient previously received antifungal prophylaxis. Liver or spleen histological examination revealed yeasts in 6/24 patients (25%) on direct examination but all cultures were negative. After a median duration of 7months, antifungal treatment was discontinued in 58% of the patients with no relapse. Eleven (46%) patients died during follow up. After multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with death were the duration of neutropenia (p0.022) and relapsing haematological malignancy (p0.015). © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


PubMed | Joseph Fourier University, Service de Bacteriologie., Service de Medecine Interne, University of Paris Descartes and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2016

Syphilis remains a significant public health problem. We conducted a prospective study to define more precisely the clinical and biological characteristics of patients with neurosyphilis (NS), and we assessed the diagnostic value of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Treponema pallidum in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples.From 2001 to 2013, we included 40 patients (90% men; 45% infected with human immunodeficiency virus) with NS, defined as syphilis with neurological and/or ophthalmological symptoms and CSF abnormalities.Thirty patients (75%) had early, 5 (12.5%) had late, and 5 had meningovascular NS. Twenty-four patients (80%) with early NS had ophthalmological symptoms, 14 (47%) had neurological symptoms, and 8 (26%) had both. All patients with meningovascular NS had only neurological symptoms. All patients with late NS had neurological symptoms, and 2 (40%) also had ocular symptoms. Ophthalmological symptoms were present in 65% of all patients with NS, and neurological symptoms in 60%. Seventeen patients (42.5%) had CSF white blood cell counts >20/L (mean, 57/L), and 27 (67.5%) had high CSF protein levels (>0.5 g/L; mean value, 1 g/L). CSF PCR results were positive in 42%, and CSF VDRL results in 30%. The nested PCR assay had an overall sensitivity of 42.5%, a specificity of 97%, a positive predictive value of 77%, and a negative predictive value of 86%.Early NS is the most frequent presentation, with an overrepresentation of polymorphous ophthalmological symptoms. PCR is highly specific and of potential value when used with other biological parameters.


PubMed | Bichat Claude Bernard, Fort de France, Saint Antoine APHP, Center dinfectiologie Necker Pasteur and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Boosted PIs are commonly prescribed in patients presenting with advanced HIV infection. We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of once-daily ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or darunavir plus two NRTIs in HIV-1-infected ART-naive patients with severe immunosuppression, targeting at least an 85% success rate at week 48.This 48 week, open-label, non-comparative, randomized, multicentre trial included ART-naive patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/mm(3), with plasma HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL and without genotypic mutations conferring resistance to the study drugs. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir (300/100 mg) or darunavir/ritonavir (800/100 mg) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine. The primary endpoint was treatment success, defined as plasma HIV-1 RNA 50 copies/mL at week 48 and no permanent PI/ritonavir discontinuation. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01928407).One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled: 77% were men, 30% were born in Africa and 39% had AIDS. The median baseline CD4 and plasma HIV-RNA values were 69 cells/mm(3) and 5.4 log10 copies/mL. All but four patients received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. The week 48 treatment success rate was 66% (95% CI 54%-78%) with atazanavir/ritonavir and 80% (95% CI 68%-89%) with darunavir/ritonavir. The median CD4 cell count increased similarly in the two groups (week 48 to week 0: +194 cells/mm(3)). Adverse events occurred in 23 and 18 patients, respectively.Despite good adherence, neither study regimen reached the predefined objective, suggesting a need for more potent regimens for patients with advanced HIV infection.

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