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Paboriboune P.,Center dInfectiologie Christophe Merieux du Laos | Paboriboune P.,Montpellier University | Phoumindr N.,Health Science University | Borel E.,University of Lyon | And 9 more authors.

Background: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. Methodology: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Principal Findings: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years) and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3). Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively). Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%). Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively), were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively). The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent regardless of their diarrheal status. Opportunistic infections were reported. Improving the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasite infections and the knowledge on their local risk factors is warranted. © 2014 Paboriboune et al. Source

Chaisiri K.,University of Liverpool | Chaisiri K.,Mahidol University | McGarry J.W.,University of Liverpool | Morand S.,Center dInfectiologie Christophe Merieux du Laos | Makepeace B.L.,University of Liverpool

A dataset of bacterial diversity found in mites was compiled from 193 publications (from 1964 to January 2015). A total of 143 mite species belonging to the 3 orders (Mesostigmata, Sarcoptiformes and Trombidiformes) were recorded and found to be associated with approximately 150 bacteria species (in 85 genera, 51 families, 25 orders and 7 phyla). From the literature, the intracellular symbiont Cardinium, the scrub typhus agent Orientia, and Wolbachia (the most prevalent symbiont of arthropods) were the dominant mite-associated bacteria, with approximately 30 mite species infected each. Moreover, a number of bacteria of medical and veterinary importance were also reported from mites, including species from the genera Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Bartonella, Francisella, Coxiella, Borrelia, Salmonella, Erysipelothrix and Serratia. Significant differences in bacterial infection patterns among mite taxa were identified. These data will not only be useful for raising awareness of the potential for mites to transmit disease, but also enable a deeper understanding of the relationship of symbionts with their arthropod hosts, and may facilitate the development of intervention tools for disease vector control. This review provides a comprehensive overview of mite-associated bacteria and is a valuable reference database for future research on mites of agricultural, veterinary and/or medical importance. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015. Source

Cosson J.F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Galan M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bard E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Razzauti M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 9 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors

Orientia bacterium is the agent of the scrub typhus, a seriously neglected life-threatening disease in Asia. Here, we report the detection of DNA of Orientia in rodents from Europe and Africa. These findings have important implications for public health. Surveillance outside Asia, where the disease is not expected by sanitary services, needs to be improved. © 2015 Cosson et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Wells K.,University of Adelaide | O'Hara R.B.,Biodiversity and Climate Research Center | Morand S.,Center dInfectiologie Christophe Merieux du Laos | Lessard J.-P.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Diversity and Distributions

Aim: Geographic spread and range expansion of species into novel environments may merge originally separated species assemblages, yet the possible drivers of geographic heterogeneity in host-parasite associations remain poorly understood. Here, we examine global patterns in the parasite assemblages of two rat species and explore the role of parasite acquisition from local pools of host species. Location: Global. Methods: We compiled a global data set of helminth parasites (n = 241 species) from two rat species (Rattus rattus species complex, R. norvegicus) and, concomitantly, from all other mammal species known to be infected by the same parasites. We used an inverse Bayesian modelling approach to explicitly link species-level to community-level infestation probabilities at different geographic scales and alleviate the shortcoming of sampling bias. Results: Patterns of species richness and turnover of parasites in the two focal rat species revealed clear biogeographic structure with lowest species richness and most distinct assemblages in Madagascar and highest species richness and least distinct assemblages in the Palaearctic region. Parasite species richness and turnover across regions were correlated for the two focal hosts, although they were associated with distinct assemblages within regions. Infection probability of a focal host with any given parasite was clearly related to infection probability of the local species pool of wildlife hosts with that same parasite. Infection probability of other mammal species infected with these parasite species, in turn, decreased with their taxonomic distance to the genus Rattus. Main conclusions: Our study demonstrates the importance of spillover of parasites from local wildlife hosts to invasive rats on global patterns of host-parasite associations. Considering both changes in local pools of host species and the global distributions of parasite and pathogen diversity in consistent model frameworks may therefore advance the forecasting of species-level infestation patterns and the possible risk of disease emergence from local to global scale. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Olaitan A.O.,Aix - Marseille University | Morand S.,Montpellier University | Morand S.,Center dInfectiologie Christophe Merieux du Laos | Rolain J.-M.,Aix - Marseille University
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

Colistin is currently regarded as one of the 'last-resort' antibiotics used for the treatment of critical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. There have been numerous reports of the emergence of colistin resistance in patients, most of whom had previously received colistin therapy or with acquisition via nosocomial transmission. However, there are also ample reports of colistin resistance in humans who have not received the drug previously or without nosocomial transmission. We have also observed a similar occurrence in our study involving colistin resistance from several countries along with a similar phenomenon being reported by researchers. The observation of colistin resistance in humans without prior colistin exposure is of particularly great clinical importance and concern because of the current importance of colistin in clinical medicine. Colistin use and colistin-resistant bacteria in animals have been recently reported, suggesting that animals could also be a source of transmission of colistin-resistant bacteria to humans. This is a real worry and calls for clinicians to be aware and vigilant of this phenomenon and of the possibility of independent resistance to colistin in some patients. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

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