Center Dimmunologie Of Marseille Luminy

Marseille, France

Center Dimmunologie Of Marseille Luminy

Marseille, France
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Mcheyzer-Williams L.J.,Scripps Research Institute | Milpied P.J.,Scripps Research Institute | Milpied P.J.,Center Dimmunologie Of Marseille Luminy | Milpied P.J.,EMD Serono, Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Nature Immunology | Year: 2015

Effective vaccines induce high-affinity memory B cells and durable antibody responses through accelerated mechanisms of natural selection. Secondary changes in antibody repertoires after vaccine boosts suggest progressive rediversification of B cell receptors (BCRs), but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, the integrated specificity and function of individual memory B cell progeny revealed ongoing evolution of polyclonal antibody specificities through germinal center (GC)-specific transcriptional activity. At the clonal and subclonal levels, single-cell expression of the genes encoding the costimulatory molecule CD83 and the DNA polymerase Poll • segregated the secondary GC transcriptional program into four stages that regulated divergent mechanisms of memory BCR evolution. Our studies demonstrate that vaccine boosts reactivate a cyclic program of GC function in class-switched memory B cells to remodel existing antibody specificities and enhance durable immunological protection. © 2015 Nature America, Inc.

Murray P.J.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Allen J.E.,University of Edinburgh | Fisher E.A.,New York University | Gilroy D.W.,University College London | And 22 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2014

Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. The lack of consensus on how to define macrophage activation in experiments invitro and invivo impedes progress in multiple ways, including the fact that many researchers still consider there to be only two types of activated macrophages, often termed M1 and M2. Here, we describe a set of standards encompassing three principles-the source of macrophages, definition of the activators, and a consensus collection of markers to describe macrophage activation-with the goal of unifying experimental standards for diverse experimental scenarios. Collectively, we propose a common framework for macrophage-activation nomenclature. The description of macrophage activation status is contentious and confusing. Murray etal. propose a framework for macrophage-activation nomenclature. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Koyama M.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Kuns R.D.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Olver S.D.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Raffelt N.C.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | And 15 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2012

The presentation pathways by which allogeneic peptides induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are unclear. We developed a bone marrow transplant (BMT) system in mice whereby presentation of a processed recipient peptide within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules could be spatially and temporally quantified. Whereas donor antigen presenting cells (APCs) could induce lethal acute GVHD via MHC class II, recipient APCs were 100-1,000 times more potent in this regard. After myeloablative irradiation, T cell activation and memory differentiation occurred in lymphoid organs independently of alloantigen. Unexpectedly, professional hematopoietic-derived recipient APCs within lymphoid organs had only a limited capacity to induce GVHD, and dendritic cells were not required. In contrast, nonhematopoietic recipient APCs within target organs induced universal GVHD mortality and promoted marked alloreactive donor T cell expansion within the gastrointestinal tract and inflammatory cytokine generation. These data challenge current paradigms, suggesting that experimental lethal acute GVHD can be induced by nonhematopoietic recipient APCs. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Normand A.-C.,Marseille University Hospital Center | Cassagne C.,Marseille University Hospital Center | Cassagne C.,Aix - Marseille University | Ranque S.,Marseille University Hospital Center | And 7 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2013

Background: The poor reproducibility of matrix-assisted desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectra limits the effectiveness of the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of filamentous fungi with highly heterogeneous phenotypes in routine clinical laboratories. This study aimed to enhance the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of filamentous fungi by assessing several architectures of reference spectrum libraries. Results: We established reference spectrum libraries that included 30 filamentous fungus species with various architectures characterized by distinct combinations of the following: i) technical replicates, i.e., the number of analyzed deposits for each culture used to build a reference meta-spectrum (RMS); ii) biological replicates, i.e., the number of RMS derived from the distinct subculture of each strain; and iii) the number of distinct strains of a given species. We then compared the effectiveness of each library in the identification of 200 prospectively collected clinical isolates, including 38 species in 28 genera.Identification effectiveness was improved by increasing the number of both RMS per strain (p<10§ssup§-4§esup§) and strains for a given species (p<10§ssup§-4§esup§) in a multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Addressing the heterogeneity of MALDI-TOF spectra derived from filamentous fungi by increasing the number of RMS obtained from distinct subcultures of strains included in the reference spectra library markedly improved the effectiveness of the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of clinical filamentous fungi. © 2013 Normand et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Signorino G.,Messina University | Mohammadi N.,Messina University | Patane F.,Messina University | Buscetta M.,Messina University | And 8 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2014

Murine Toll-like receptor 13 (TLR13), an endosomal receptor that is not present in humans, is activated by an unmethylated motif present in the large ribosomal subunit of bacterial RNA (23S rRNA). Little is known, however, of the impact of TLR13 on antibacterial host defenses. Here we examined the role of this receptor in the context of infection induced by the model pathogen group B streptococcus (GBS). To this end, we used bacterial strains masked from TLR13 recognition by virtue of constitutive expression of the ErmC methyltransferase, which results in dimethylation of the 23S rRNA motif at a critical adenine residue. We found that TLR13-mediated rRNA recognition was required for optimal induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitrous oxide in dendritic cell and macrophage cultures stimulated with heat-killed bacteria or purified bacterial RNA. However, TLR13-dependent recognition was redundant when live bacteria were used as a stimulus. Moreover, masking bacterial rRNA from TLR13 recognition did not increase the ability of GBS to avoid host defenses and replicate in vivo. In contrast, increased susceptibility to infection was observed under conditions in which signaling by all endosomal TLRs was abolished, i.e., in mice with a loss-of-function mutation in the chaperone protein UNC93B1. Our data lend support to the conclusion that TLR13 participates in GBS recognition, although blockade of the function of this receptor can be compensated for by other endosomal TLRs. Lack of selective pressure by bacterial infections might explain the evolutionary loss of TLR13 in humans. However, further studies using different bacterial species are needed to prove this hypothesis. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Cassagne C.,Marseille University Hospital Center | Ranque S.,Marseille University Hospital Center | Normand A.-C.,Marseille University Hospital Center | Fourquet P.,Center Dimmunologie Of Marseille Luminy | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: MALDI-TOF MS recently emerged as a valuable identification tool for bacteria and yeasts and revolutionized the daily clinical laboratory routine. But it has not been established for routine mould identification. This study aimed to validate a standardized procedure for MALDI-TOF MS-based mould identification in clinical laboratory. Materials and Methods: First, pre-extraction and extraction procedures were optimized. With this standardized procedure, a 143 mould strains reference spectra library was built. Then, the mould isolates cultured from sequential clinical samples were prospectively subjected to this MALDI-TOF MS based-identification assay. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was considered correct if it was concordant with the phenotypic identification; otherwise, the gold standard was DNA sequence comparison-based identification. Results: The optimized procedure comprised a culture on sabouraud-gentamicin-chloramphenicol agar followed by a chemical extraction of the fungal colonies with formic acid and acetonitril. The identification was done using a reference database built with references from at least four culture replicates. For five months, 197 clinical isolates were analyzed; 20 were excluded because they were not identified at the species level. MALDI-TOF MS-based approach correctly identified 87% (154/177) of the isolates analyzed in a routine clinical laboratory activity. It failed in 12% (21/177), whose species were not represented in the reference library. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was correct in 154 out of the remaining 156 isolates. One Beauveria bassiana was not identified and one Rhizopus oryzae was misidentified as Mucor circinelloides. Conclusions: This work's seminal finding is that a standardized procedure can also be used for MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of a wide array of clinically relevant mould species. It thus makes it possible to identify moulds in the routine clinical laboratory setting and opens new avenues for the development of an integrated MALDI-TOF MS-based solution for the identification of any clinically relevant microorganism. © 2011 Cassagne et al.

Koch F.,Center Dimmunologie Of Marseille Luminy | Andrau J.-C.,Center Dimmunologie Of Marseille Luminy
Transcription | Year: 2011

In past years, many efforts were invested to define epigenetic features associated with enhancers of transcription. We propose that both transcription initiation and the H3K4me3 histone modification are among the best hallmarks of active enhancers in several primary tissues and extend the concept of large transcription initiation platforms (TIPs). © 2011 Landes Bioscience.

Zhang J.,University of Dundee | Clark K.,University of Dundee | Lawrence T.,Center Dimmunologie Of Marseille Luminy | Peggie M.W.,University of Dundee | Cohen P.,University of Dundee
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2014

IKKβ {Iκ B [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)] kinase β} is required to activate the transcription factor NF-κB, but how IKKβ itself is activated in vivo is still unclear. It was found to require phosphorylation by one or more 'upstream' protein kinases in some reports, but by autophosphorylation in others. In the present study, we resolve this controversy by demonstrating that the activation of IKKβ induced by IL-1 (interleukin-1) or TNF (tumour necrosis factor) in embryonic fibroblasts, or by ligands that activate Toll-like receptors in macrophages, requires two distinct phosphorylation events: first, the TAK1 [TGFβ (transforming growth factor β)-activated kinase-1]-catalysed phosphorylation of Ser 177 and, secondly, the IKKβ-catalysed autophosphorylation of Ser181. The phosphorylation of Ser177 by TAK1 is a priming event required for the subsequent autophosphorylation of Ser181, which enables IKKβ to phosphorylate exogenous substrates. We also provide genetic evidence which indicates that the IL-1-stimulated, LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex)-catalysed formation of linear ubiquitin chains and their interaction with the NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) component of the canonical IKK complex permits the TAK1-catalysed priming phosphorylation of IKKβ at Ser177 and IKKα at Ser176. These findings may be of general significance for the activation of other protein kinases. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society.

Alvarez-Errico D.,Chromatin | Vento-Tormo R.,Chromatin | Sieweke M.,Center Dimmunologie Of Marseille Luminy | Ballestar E.,Chromatin
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2015

Myeloid cells are crucial effectors of the innate immune response and important regulators of adaptive immunity. The differentiation and activation of myeloid cells requires the timely regulation of gene expression; this depends on the interplay of a variety of elements, including transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic control involves histone modifications and DNA methylation, and is coupled to lineage-specifying transcription factors, upstream signalling pathways and external factors released in the bone marrow, blood and tissue environments. In this Review, we highlight key epigenetic events controlling myeloid cell biology, focusing on those related to myeloid cell differentiation, the acquisition of myeloid identity and innate immune memory. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Alard A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Fabre B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Anesia R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Marboeuf C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2010

The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI) serves as a central adapter in cap-binding complex assembly. Although eIF4GI has been shown to be sensitive to proteasomal degradation, how the eIF4GI steady-state level is controlled remains unknown. Here, we show that eIF4GI exists in a complex with NAD(P)H quinone-oxydoreductase 1 (NQO1) in cell extracts. Treatment of cells with dicumarol (dicoumarol), a pharmacological inhibitor of NQO1 known to preclude NQO1 binding to its protein partners, provokes eIF4GI degradation by the proteasome. Consistently, the eIF4GI steady-state level also diminishes upon the silencing of NQO1 (by transfection with small interfering RNA), while eIF4GI accumulates upon the overexpression of NQO1 (by transfection with cDNA). We further reveal that treatment of cells with dicumarol frees eIF4GI from mRNA translation initiation complexes due to strong activation of its natural competitor, the translational repressor 4E-BP1. As a consequence of cap-binding complex dissociation and eIF4GI degradation, protein synthesis is dramatically inhibited. Finally, we show that the regulation of eIF4GI stability by the proteasome may be prominent under oxidative stress. Our findings assign NQO1 an original role in the regulation of mRNA translation via the control of eIF4GI stability by the proteasome. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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