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Provencher V.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Desrosiers J.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Demers L.,University of Montreal | Carmichael P.-H.,Center Dexcellence Sur Le Vieillissement Of Quebec
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Purpose: This study aimed to (1) determine the categories of behavioral coping strategies most strongly correlated with optimal seniors social participation in different activity and role domains and (2) identify the demographic, health and environmental factors associated with the use of these coping strategies optimizing social participation. Method: The sample consisted of 350 randomly recruited community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years). Coping strategies and social participation were measured, respectively, using the Inventory of Coping Strategies Used by the Elderly and Assessment of Life Habits questionnaires. Information about demographic, health and environmental factors was also collected during the interview. Results: Regression analyses showed a strong relationship between the use of cooking- and transportation-related coping strategies and optimal participation in the domains of nutrition and community life, respectively. Older age and living alone were associated with increased use of cooking-related strategies, while good self-rated health and not living in a seniors residence were correlated with greater use of transportation-related strategies. Conclusions: Our study helped to identify useful behavioral coping strategies that should be incorporated in disability prevention programs designed to promote community-dwelling seniors social participation. However, the appropriateness of these strategies depends on whether they are used in relevant contexts and tailored to specific needs.Implications for RehabilitationOur results support the relevance of including behavioral coping strategies related to cooking and transportation in disability prevention programs designed to promote community-dwelling seniors social participation in the domains of nutrition and community life, respectively.Older age and living alone were associated with increased use of cooking-related strategies, while good self-rated health and not living in a seniors residence were correlated with greater use of transportation-related strategies. These factors should be considered in order to optimize implementation of these useful strategies in disability prevention programs.The appropriateness of these selected strategies depends on whether they are used in relevant contexts and tailored to specific needs. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Feldman D.E.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Feldman D.E.,University of Montreal | Levesque J.-F.,University of Montreal | Lemieux V.,Agente de Planification | And 5 more authors.
Healthcare Policy | Year: 2012

Purpose: To explore the association between primary healthcare (PHC) organizational model and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in persons with chronic disease. Methods: We recruited 776 patients with a primary diagnosis of one of four chronic diseases from 33 PHC clinics. Patients were interviewed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. We categorized PHC model by administrative type and by a taxonomy according to organizational attributes. HRQoL was measured by disease-specific questionnaires. Results: Mean age was 67 years and 55.3% were female. PHC models differed with respect to case mix: community models served older patients with higher co-morbidity and lower health status. Multilevel logistic regression revealed that none of the PHC organizational models was associated with HRQoL. Having fewer co-morbidities, higher self-rated health and not using home care services were associated with higher HRQoL. Conclusion: Despite their having patients with more complex health problems, HRQoL in patients of community practices was equivalent to that of patients in other types of PHC organizations.

Doiron Y.,Laval University | Delacroix S.,Laval University | Delacroix S.,University of Valenciennes and HainautCambresis | Denninger M.,Laval University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2010

Our aim was to determine whether subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) have abnormal multijoint torque patterns compared to healthy subjects during normalized isometric force along specific directions. Subjects had to generate an isometric force corresponding to 40% of the maximal pain-free force. Eight targets were displayed on a monitor (0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 225, 270, and 3158). We calculated shoulder and elbow torques (kinetic strategies) using a biomechanical model. Regardless of the target location, the SIS group succeeded in reaching the target; however, when compared to the healthy subjects, they needed more time to do so, suggesting that SIS may slow down the execution of the kinetic strategies. Moreover, the SIS group produced lower shoulder external/internal torque to reach the targets located at 0° and 225°, and they generated greater abduction/adduction torque for targets located at 0, 135, and 180°. In addition, they had lower elbow extension/flexion torque for the target located at 315°. The investigation of atypical kinetic strategies is essential to provide an understanding of the pathomechanics of the SIS and to develop more effective treatment strategies. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Anderson N.D.,Rotman Research Institute | Anderson N.D.,University of Toronto | Damianakis T.,University of Windsor | Kroger E.,Center Dexcellence Sur Le Vieillissement Of Quebec | And 9 more authors.
Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2014

There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering, (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Nadeau A.,Laval University | Nadeau A.,Center Dexcellence Sur Le Vieillissement Of Quebec | Pourcher E.,Quebec Memory and Motor Skills Disorders Research Center | Pourcher E.,Laval University | And 2 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

Purpose: Recent studies suggest that walking on a treadmill improves gait, mobility, and quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Still, there is a need for larger-scale randomized controlled studies that demonstrate the advantages of treadmill training (TT) with control groups that receive similar amounts of attention. Moreover, to date, no study has combined speed and incline as parameters of progression. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of TT, with and without the use of incline, on gait, mobility and quality of life in patients with PD. Methods: The sample comprised 34 patients with PD, at the Hoehn and Yahr stage 1.5 or 2. Participants were randomized to speed TT, mixed TT, and control groups. The intervention consisted of 72 one-hour exercise sessions for 24 wk. The main outcome measures are the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, spatiotemporal parameters of gait and 6-min walking distance. The measures were taken at baseline, mid-term and after 6 months. RESULTS: Both TT groups improved in terms of speed, cadence, and stride length during self-selected walking conditions at the study end point. Both groups also showed improvements in distance traveled. Only the Mixed TT group improved their quality of life. The Control group showed no progress. Conclusions: Participants in this study showed significant improvements in walking speed and walking endurance after 6 months of TT. Improvements were observed after 3 months of intensive TT and persisted at 6 months. It appears that individuals with poorer baseline performance may benefit most from TT. © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

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