Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France
Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

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Herr M.,University of Paris Descartes | Nikasinovic L.,University of Paris Descartes | Foucault C.,Center Dexamens Of Sante Of Lenfant Amelot | Le Marec A.-M.,Cellule Cohorte de la Direction de lAction Sociale | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2011

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) has become the most prevalent chronic allergic disorder in childhood, and the role of environment has been questioned, particularly in early life. Objective: To investigate the risk factors for rhinitis symptoms in infants included in the PARIS (Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort. Methods: Infants were invited to participate at age 18 months in a health examination conducted by a pediatrician. Allergic rhinitis was defined as the presence of rhinitis symptoms (runny nose, blocked nose, sneezing in the absence of a cold) combined with biological atopy (elevated total immunoglobulin E [IgE], specific IgE, or eosinophilia) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) as symptoms without biological atopy. Information about indoor exposures and lifestyle was collected during a telephone interview when the child was 1 month of age. Risk factors for AR and NAR were studied by using a polytomous regression model. Results: The prevalence of AR and NAR was 70/1,850 (3.8%) and 99/1,850 (5.4%), respectively. Allergic rhinitis and NAR did not share similar risk factors. Male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99 [1.19-3.32]), parental history of AR (OR = 1.89 [1.16-3.08]), low socioeconomic class (OR = 2.23 [1.05-4.72] for low vs high level), and the presence of cockroaches in the home (OR = 3.15 [1.67-5.96]) were risk factors for AR. Conversely, the presence of particle-board furniture less than 12 months old in the child's bedroom was associated with an increased risk of NAR (OR = 1.87 [1.21-2.90]). Conclusions: This study should raise awareness about the impact of indoor exposures, particularly with regard to cockroaches and particle-board furniture, because they could influence the occurrence of noninfectious rhinitis. © 2011 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


Herr M.,University of Paris Descartes | Clarisse B.,University of Paris Descartes | Nikasinovic L.,University of Paris Descartes | Foucault C.,Center Dexamens Of Sante Of Lenfant Amelot | And 5 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Background: Early onset of allergic rhinitis (AR) is poorly described, and rhinitis symptoms are often attributed to infections. This study analyses the relations between AR-like symptoms and atopy in infancy in the PARIS (Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort. Methods: Data on AR-like symptoms (runny nose, blocked nose, sneezing apart from a cold) were collected using a standardized questionnaire administered during the health examination at age 18 months included in the follow-up of the PARIS birth cohort. Parental history of allergy and children's atopy blood markers (blood eosinophilia ≤470 eosinophils/mm3, total immunoglobulin E ≤45 U/ml and presence of allergen-specific IgE) were assessed. Associations were studied using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Prevalence of AR-like symptoms in the past year was 9.1% of the 1850 toddlers of the study cohort. AR-like symptoms and dry cough apart from a cold were frequent comorbid conditions. Parental history of AR in both parents increased the risk of suffering from AR-like symptoms with an OR 2.09 (P = 0.036). Significant associations were found with the presence of concurrent biological markers of atopy, especially blood eosinophilia and sensitization to house dust mite (OR 1.54, P = 0.046 and OR 2.91, P = 0.042) whereas there was no relation with sensitization to food. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that AR could begin as early as 18 months of life. Suspicion of AR should be reinforced in infants with parental history of AR or biological evidence of atopy, particularly blood eosinophilia and sensitization to inhalant allergens. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Herr M.,University of Paris Descartes | Nikasinovic L.,University of Paris Descartes | Foucault C.,Center Dexamens Of Sante Of Lenfant Amelot | Le Marec A.-M.,Cellule Cohorte de la Direction de lAction Sociale | And 4 more authors.
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires | Year: 2012

Background.-While wheezing disorders are common in preschool children, their management is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the use of medical health care resources due to wheezing disorders in infants aged 18 months followed up in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Methods.-Data on wheezing disorders, medical visits and medication on account of respiratory disorders during the previous 12 months were collected with a standardized questionnaire, administered by a paediatrician, during the health check offered to every child aged 18 months included in the PARIS birth cohort. Results.-The prevalence of wheezing disorders during the past 12 months amounted to 560/1974 (28.4%). Among wheezers, 493 (89.3%) required a medical visit because of difficult breathing; 61 (11.0%) went to the emergency room, 35 (6.4%) were admitted to the hospital and 375 (67.2%) received an inhaled anti-asthmatic medication. Recourse to chest physiotherapy was reported in 472 of them (85.1%). Conclusion.-This study confirms the high use of healthcare resources because of wheezing disorders in infants and suggests a higher use of anti-asthmatic medications in France compared to other European countries. © 2011 SPLF.


Herr M.,University of Paris Descartes | Just J.,University of Paris Descartes | Just J.,Roche Holding AG | Nikasinovic L.,University of Paris Descartes | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Background: Unsupervised approaches can be used to analyze complex respiratory and allergic disorders. Objective: We investigated the respiratory and allergic phenotypes of children followed in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: An Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Methods: Information on respiratory and allergic disorders, medical visits, and medications was collected during medical examinations of children at 18 months of age; biomarker data were also collected (total and allergen-specific IgE levels and eosinophilia). Phenotypes were determined by using latent class analysis. Associated risk factors were determined based on answers to questionnaires about environmental exposures. Results: Apart from a reference group, which had a low prevalence of respiratory symptoms or allergies (n = 1271 [69.4%]), 3 phenotypes were identified. On the basis of clinical signs of severity and use of health care resources, we identified a mild phenotype (n = 306 [16.7%]) characterized by occasional mild wheeze and 2 severe phenotypes separated by atopic status. The atopic severe phenotype (n = 59 [3.2%]) included 49 (83%) children with wheezing and was characterized by a high prevalence of atopy (61% with allergenic sensitization) and atopic dermatitis (78%). In contrast, atopy was rare among children with the nonatopic severe phenotype (n = 195 [11%]); this group included 88% of the children with recurrent wheezing. Risk factors for respiratory disease included parental history of asthma, male sex, siblings, day care attendance, exposure to tobacco smoke or molds, indoor renovations, and being overweight, although these factors did not have similar affects on risk for all phenotypes. Conclusion: Atopy should be taken into account when assessing the risk of severe exacerbations (that require hospital-based care) in wheezing infants; precautions should be taken against respiratory irritants and molds and to prevent children from becoming overweight. © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


Herr M.,University of Paris Descartes | Just J.,University of Paris Descartes | Just J.,Roche Holding AG | Nikasinovic L.,University of Paris Descartes | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy | Year: 2012

Background: Determinants of wheezing severity are poorly documented in infants. Objectives: To study the determinants of wheezing severity in infants aged 18 months followed-up in the PARIS (« Pollution and Asthma Risk : an Infant Study ») birth cohort. Methods: Data on wheezing disorders, medical visits and medications, as well as biological markers of atopy, were collected during a medical examination at age 18 months. Severe wheeze was defined as wheeze that required inhaled corticosteroid and/or hospital-based care. Environmental exposures were assessed prospectively with regular questionnaires. Risk factors for wheeze in the first 18 months of life were assessed by multivariate regression models. Results: Participation in the medical examination concerned 48.2% of the original cohort. Prevalence of wheeze was 560/1879 (35.7%) and was influenced by male gender, parental history of asthma, siblings, daycare attendance, heavy parental smoking at home, and carpet covered floor in the child's bedroom. Being overweight increased the risk of wheeze by 62% (OR = 1.62, 95%CI 1.13-2.32). In addition, trends towards an increased risk of wheeze were found in infants exposed to daily use of cleaning sprays and to renovation activities. Conversely, the presence of a cat reduced the risk of wheeze (OR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.47-0.89), without any evidence of healthy-pet keeping effect. Severe wheeze concerned 286 of the wheezers (42.7%). The prevalence of severe wheeze was related to atopy, and risk of severe wheeze was in particular increased in infants having eosinophilia (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.21-2.55) or being sensitized to ≥ 2 allergens (OR = 1.88, 95%CI 1.13-3.14). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Whilst risk factors for wheeze before 18 months of age are factors related to infections, indoor air pollution, and being overweight, the severity of wheeze is mainly due to the atopic status of the child. We suggest that atopy should be further considered in the assessment of wheezing severity in infants. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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