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Durickovic I.,Center Detudes Techniques Of Lequipement Of Lest | Marchetti M.,Center Detudes Techniques Of Lequipement Of Lest
IET Science, Measurement and Technology | Year: 2014

Human activities are, more or less directly, responsible for increasing pollution in running waters, making this an important issue over the last decades and the ones to come. Many documents define a legal frame on the water pollutants underlying the importance of the surveillance of their presence in the environment. The difficulty in the surveillance of these products is due to the great diversity of the pollutant families, leading to the necessity to use several analytical techniques. This study shows the relevance of using Raman spectrometry for the detection and the quantification of several major pollutant families in an aqueous media such as drugs, pesticides or salts coming from fertilisers. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014. Source


De Munck C.S.,French National Center of Weather Research | Lemonsu A.,French National Center of Weather Research | Bouzouidja R.,NIDAPLAST | Bouzouidja R.,Center Detudes Techniques Of Lequipement Of Lest | And 3 more authors.
Geoscientific Model Development | Year: 2013

The need to prepare cities for climate change adaptation requests the urban modeller community to implement sustainable adaptation strategies within their models to be tested against specific city morphologies and scenarios. Greening city roofs is part of these strategies. In this context, the GREENROOF module for TEB (town energy balance) has been developed to model the interactions between buildings and green roof systems at the scale of the city. This module, which combines the ISBA model (Interaction between Soil Biosphere and Atmosphere) and TEB, allows for one to describe an extensive green roof composed of four functional layers (vegetation-grasses or sedums; substrate; retention/drainage layers; and artificial roof layers) and to model vegetation-atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and momentum, as well as the hydrological fluxes throughout the substrate and the drainage layers, and the thermal fluxes throughout the natural and artificial layers of the green roof. TEB-GREENROOF (SURFEX v7.3) should therefore be able to represent the impact of climate forcings on the functioning of green roof vegetation and, conversely, the influence of the green roof on the local climate. An evaluation of GREENROOF is performed for a case study located in Nancy (France) which consists of an instrumented extensive green roof with sedums and substrate and drainage layers that are typical of this kind of construction. After calibration of the drainage layer hydrological characteristics, model results show good dynamics for the substrate water content and the drainage at the green roof base, with nevertheless a tendency to underestimate the water content and overestimate the drainage. This does not impact too much the green roof temperatures, which present a good agreement with observations. Nonetheless GREENROOF tends to overestimate the soil temperatures and their amplitudes, but this effect is less important in the drainage layer. These results are encouraging with regard to modelling the impact of green roofs on thermal indoor comfort and energy consumption at the scale of cities, for which GREENROOF will be running with the building energy version of TEB-TEB-BEM. Moreover, with the green roof studied for GREENROOF evaluation being a type of extensive green roof widespread in cities, the type of hydrological characteristics highlighted for the case study will be used as the standard configuration to model extensive green roof impacts at the scale of cities. © 2013 Author(s). Source


Durickovic I.,CNRS Laboratory of Optical Materials, Photonics, and Systems | Durickovic I.,Center Detudes Techniques Of Lequipement Of Lest | Marchetti M.,Center Detudes Techniques Of Lequipement Of Lest | Claverie R.,Center Detudes Techniques Of Lequipement Of Lest | And 3 more authors.
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

Raman spectroscopy was used to study the NaCl aqueous solutions around the solid-liquid phase transition. Special attention was devoted to the modification induced by the salt on the OH stretching band of water. Investigations were carried out in the temperature range between -21 and 10 °C, for concentrations from 0 to 200 g/L. We demonstrated that micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used as a marker, allowing the determination of the salt concentration of an aqueous solution with an error close to ±5%. © 2010 Society for Applied Spectroscopy. Source


Durickovic I.,Center Detudes Techniques Of Lequipement Of Lest | Durickovic I.,CNRS Laboratory of Optical Materials, Photonics, and Systems | Claverie R.,Center Detudes Techniques Of Lequipement Of Lest | Bourson P.,CNRS Laboratory of Optical Materials, Photonics, and Systems | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

Raman spectroscopy was used to study the liquid-solid water phase transition. Special attention was devoted to the OH-stretching band of the Raman spectrum, which shows monotonous changes in the temperature range between 10 and - 15 °C. The interpretation of this spectral change, as well as a careful analysis of its integrated scattered intensity, led to a spectral marker that allows the determination of the water phase (liquid or solid), and the efficient identification of the liquid-solid phase transition itself. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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