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Cottrell G.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Cottrell G.,University of Paris Descartes | Cottrell G.,Institute des science Biomedicales Appliquees ISBA | Cottrell G.,Center Detudes Et Of Recherche Sur Le Paludisme Associe Grossesse Et nfant | And 22 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Malaria remains endemic in tropical areas, especially in Africa. For the evaluation of new tools and to further our understanding of host-parasite interactions, knowing the environmental risk of transmission-even at a very local scale-is essential. The aim of this study was to assess how malaria transmission is influenced and can be predicted by local climatic and environmental factors. As the entomological part of a cohort study of 650 newborn babies in nine villages in the Tori Bossito district of Southern Benin between June 2007 and February 2010, human landing catches were performed to assess the density of malaria vectors and transmission intensity. Climatic factors as well as household characteristics were recorded throughout the study. Statistical correlations between Anopheles density and environmental and climatic factors were tested using a three-level Poisson mixed regression model. The results showed both temporal variations in vector density (related to season and rainfall), and spatial variations at the level of both village and house. These spatial variations could be largely explained by factors associated with the house's immediate surroundings, namely soil type, vegetation index and the proximity of a watercourse. Based on these results, a predictive regression model was developed using a leave-one-out method, to predict the spatiotemporal variability of malaria transmission in the nine villages. This study points up the importance of local environmental factors in malaria transmission and describes a model to predict the transmission risk of individual children, based on environmental and behavioral characteristics. © 2012 Cottrell et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Rachas A.,Paris Observatory | Rachas A.,University of Paris Descartes | Le Port A.,Paris Observatory | Le Port A.,University of Paris Descartes | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background.Several studies have shown that the risk of malaria infection increases for children born to a mother with placental malaria infection. An immune tolerance phenomenon has been hypothesized. We addressed whether Plasmodium falciparum placental infection could additionally be associated with the risk of nonmalaria fevers in infants.Methods.From 2007 to 2009, 553 infants were followed up from birth to 18 months in Benin. The occurrence of fever was actively screened by trained community workers. Malaria fevers (temperature >37.5°C with positive results of rapid diagnostic test or thick blood smear) were excluded from analysis. The association between placental malaria infection and the number of total, gastrointestinal, and respiratory febrile episodes was explored using binomial negative regression, with adjustment for maternal age, parity, parents' schooling, socioeconomic level, sex, village of birth, season of birth, prematurity, Apgar score and nutritional status.Results.The prevalence of placental malaria infection was 11.2. During a median follow-up of 17.8 months, 624 nonmalaria fevers were registered. Placental malaria infection was associated with a higher risk of nonmalaria fever episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.4; 95 confidence interval, 1.1-1.8) as well as gastrointestinal (1.6; 1.1-2.5) and respiratory (1.5; 1.1-2.1) febrile syndromes. The same pattern was obtained when considering consultations after the age of 6 months.Conclusions.These results suggest an association between placental malaria infection and nonmalaria infections in the first 18 months of life. Immune tolerance could lead to impaired immune development not specific to malaria infections in infants born to mothers with placental malaria infection, but further studies are needed. © The Author 2012.


Drame P.M.,IRD Montpellier | Drame P.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Poinsignon A.,IRD Montpellier | Dechavanne C.,IRD Montpellier | And 16 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: The estimates of risk of malaria in early childhood are imprecise given the current entomologic and parasitological tools. Thus, the utility of anti-Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide antibody responses in measuring exposure to Anopheles bites during early infancy has been assessed. Methods: Anti-gSG6-P1 IgG and IgM levels were evaluated in 133 infants (in Benin) at three (M3), six (M6), nine (M9) and 12 (M12) months of age. Specific IgG levels were also assessed in their respective umbilical cord blood (IUCB) and maternal blood (MPB). Results: At M3, 93.98 and 41.35% of infants had anti-gSG6-P1 IgG and IgM Ab, respectively. Specific median IgG and IgM levels gradually increased between M3 and M6 (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001), M6-M9 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.085) and M9-M12 (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03). These levels were positively associated with the Plasmodium falciparum infection intensity (p = 0.006 and 0.003), and inversely with the use of insecticide-treated bed nets (p = 0.003 and 0.3). Levels of specific IgG in the MPB were positively correlated to those in the IUCB (R = 0.73; p < 0.0001) and those at M3 (R = 0.34; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The exposure level to Anopheles bites, and then the risk of malaria infection, can be evaluated in young infants by assessing anti-gSG6-P1 IgM and IgG responses before and after 6-months of age, respectively. This tool can be useful in epidemiological evaluation and surveillance of malaria risk during the first year of life. © 2015 Drame et al.


Koura K.G.,IRD UMR216 | Koura K.G.,University of Paris Descartes | Koura K.G.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Ouedraogo S.,IRD UMR216 | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Anaemia during pregnancy and at delivery is an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Its association with the children's haemoglobin level over time remains unclear. Our goals were to identify distinct haemoglobin level trajectories using latent class analysis and to assess the association between these trajectories and maternal anaemia and other risk factors. Method: A prospective study of children from birth to 18 months of life was conducted in a rural setting in Tori-Bossito, Benin. The main outcome measure was the haemoglobin levels repeatedly measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. Variables were collected from the mothers at delivery and from their children at birth and during the follow-up. The analyses were performed by means of Latent Class Analysis which has never been used for this kind of data. All the analyses were performed with Stata software, version 11.0, using the generalized linear latent and mixed model (GLLAMM) framework. Results: We showed that 33.7% of children followed a low haemoglobin trajectory and 66.3% a high trajectory during the first 18 months of life. Newborn anaemia, placental malaria, malaria attack, sickle cell trait and male gender were significantly associated with a lower children's haemoglobin level over time, whereas maternal age, children living in a polygamous family and with good feeding practices had a higher Hb level in the first18 months. We also showed that maternal anaemia was a predictor for 'low haemoglobin level trajectory' group membership but have no significant effect on children haemoglobin level over time. Conclusion: Latent Class Analyses framework seems well suited to analyse longitudinal data under the hypothesis that different subpopulations of subjects are present in the data, each with its own set of parameters, with distinctive evolutions that themselves may reflect distinctive aetiologies. © 2012 Koura et al.


Le Port A.,University of Paris Descartes | Cottrell G.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Cottrell G.,University of Paris Descartes | Cottrell G.,Center Detudes Et Of Recherche Sur Le Paludisme Associe Grossesse Et nfant | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

According to several studies, infants whose mothers had a malaria-infected placenta (MIP) at delivery are at increased risk of a first malaria infection. Immune tolerance caused by intrauterine contact with the parasite could explain this phenomenon, but it is also known that infants who are highly exposed to Anopheles mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium are at greater risk of contracting malaria. Consequently, local malaria transmission must be taken into account to demonstrate the immune tolerance hypothesis. From data collected between 2007 and 2010 on 545 infants followed from birth to age 18 months in southern Benin, we compared estimates of the effect of MIP on time to first malaria infection obtained through different Cox models. In these models, MIP was adjusted for either 1) "village-like" time-independent exposure variables or 2) spatiotemporal exposure prediction derived from local climatic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Only the use of exposure prediction improved the model's goodness of fit (Bayesian Information Criterion) and led to clear conclusions regarding the effect of placental infection, whereas the models using the village-like variables were less successful than the univariate model. This demonstrated clearly the benefit of adequately taking transmission into account in cohort studies of malaria. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

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