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Stefanovic A.,University of Lausanne | Stefanovic A.,Rockefeller University | Arpat A.B.,University of Lausanne | Bligny R.,Center dEnergie Atomique | And 4 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

Inorganic phosphate (Pi) homeostasis in multi-cellular eukaryotes depends not only on Pi influx into cells, but also on Pi efflux. Examples in plants for which Pi efflux is crucial are transfer of Pi into the xylem of roots and release of Pi at the peri-arbuscular interface of mycorrhizal roots. Despite its importance, no protein has been identified that specifically mediates phosphate efflux either in animals or plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana PHO1 gene is expressed in roots, and was previously shown to be involved in long-distance transfer of Pi from the root to the shoot. Here we show that PHO1 over-expression in the shoot of A. thaliana led to a two- to threefold increase in shoot Pi content and a severe reduction in shoot growth. 31P-NMR in vivo showed a normal initial distribution of intracellular Pi between the cytoplasm and the vacuole in leaves over-expressing PHO1, followed by a large efflux of Pi into the infiltration medium, leading to a rapid reduction of the vacuolar Pi pool. Furthermore, the Pi concentration in leaf xylem exudates from intact plants was more than 100-fold higher in PHO1 over-expressing plants compared to wild-type. Together, these results show that PHO1 over-expression in leaves leads to a dramatic efflux of Pi out of cells and into the xylem vessel, revealing a crucial role for PHO1 in Pi efflux. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Rouached H.,University of Lausanne | Stefanovic A.,University of Lausanne | Stefanovic A.,Rockefeller University | Secco D.,University of Lausanne | And 4 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is one of the most limiting nutrients for plant growth in both natural and agricultural contexts. Pi-deficiency leads to a strong decrease in shoot growth, and triggers extensive changes at the developmental, biochemical and gene expression levels that are presumably aimed at improving the acquisition of this nutrient and sustaining growth. The Arabidopsis thaliana PHO1 gene has previously been shown to participate in the transport of Pi from roots to shoots, and the null pho1 mutant has all the hallmarks associated with shoot Pi deficiency. We show here that A. thaliana plants with a reduced expression of PHO1 in roots have shoot growth similar to Pi-sufficient plants, despite leaves being strongly Pi deficient. Furthermore, the gene expression profile normally triggered by Pi deficiency is suppressed in plants with low PHO1 expression. At comparable levels of shoot Pi supply, the wild type reduces shoot growth but maintains adequate shoot vacuolar Pi content, whereas the PHO1 underexpressor maintains maximal growth with strongly depleted Pi reserves. Expression of the Oryza sativa (rice) PHO1 ortholog in the pho1 null mutant also leads to plants that maintain normal growth and suppression of the Pi-deficiency response, despite the low shoot Pi. These data show that it is possible to unlink low shoot Pi content with the responses normally associated with Pi deficiency through the modulation of PHO1 expression or activity. These data also show that reduced shoot growth is not a direct consequence of Pi deficiency, but is more likely to be a result of extensive gene expression reprogramming triggered by Pi deficiency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Poline J.-B.,Center dEnergie Atomique | Poline J.-B.,University of California at Berkeley | Breeze J.L.,Karolinska Institutet | Ghosh S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 9 more authors.
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics | Year: 2012

Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging. © 2012 Poline, Breeze, Ghosh, Gorgolewski, Halchenko, Hanke, Helmer, Marcus, Poldrack, Schwartz, Ashburner and Kennedy. Source

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