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Lattanzio V.M.T.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Nivarlet N.,UNISENSOR S.A. | Lippolis V.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Gatta S.D.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | And 4 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin-BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73-109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200μgkg -1, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400μgkg -1, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC-MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins in cereals. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Bienenmann-Ploum M.E.,RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety | Vincent U.,European Commission | Campbell K.,Queen's University of Belfast | Huet A.-C.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe | And 6 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Coccidiostats are authorized in the European Union (EU) to be used as poultry feed additives. Maximum (residue) levels (M(R)Ls) have been set within the EU for consumer and animal protection against unintended carry-over, and monitoring is compulsory. This paper describes the single-laboratory validation of a previously developed multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) as screening method for coccidiostats in eggs and feed and provides and compares different approaches for the calculation of the cut-off levels which are not described in detail within Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Comparable results were obtained between the statistical (reference) approach and the rapid approaches. With the most rapid approach, the cut-off levels for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, diclazuril, nicarbazin (DNC) and monensin in egg, calculated as percentages of inhibition (%B/B0), were 60, 32, 76, 80 and 84, respectively. In feed, the cut-off levels for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, nicarbazin (DNC) and monensin were 70, 64, 72 and 78, respectively, and could not be determined for diclazuril. For all analytes, except for diclazuril in feed, the rate of false positives (false non-compliant) in blank samples was lower than 1 %, and the rate of false negatives (false compliant) at the M(R)Ls was below 5 %. Additionally, very good correlations (r ranging from 0.994 to 0.9994) were observed between two different analysers, a sophisticated flow cytometer (FlexMAP 3D®) and a more cost-efficient and transportable planar imaging detector (MAGPIX®), hence demonstrating adequate transferability. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Suarez-Pantaleon C.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe | Huet A.C.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe | Kavanagh O.,Queen's University of Belfast | Lei H.,South China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013

The administration of recombinant methionyl bovine somatotropin (rMbST) to dairy cows to increase milk yield remains a common practice in many countries including the USA, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa and Korea, whereas it has been forbidden within the European Union (EU) since 1999. A rapid screening immunoanalytical method capable of the unequivocal determination of rMbST in milk would be highly desirable in order to effectively monitor compliance with the EU-wide ban for home-made or imported dairy products. For decades, the production of specific antibodies for this recombinant isoform of bovine somatotropin (bST) has remained elusive, due to the high degree of sequence homology between both counterparts (e.g. methionine for rMbST in substitution of alanine in bST at the N-terminus). In this study, we compared several immunizing strategies for the production of specific polyclonal antibodies (pAbs), based on the use of the full-length recombinant protein, an rMbST N-terminus peptide fragment and a multiple antigen peptide (MAP) which consists of an oligomeric branching lysine core attached to the first two N-terminus amino acids of rMbST, methionine and phenylalanine (MF-MAP). The immunization with KLH-conjugated MF-MAP led to the production of the pAb with the highest rMbST/bST recognition ratio amongst the generated battery of antibodies. The pAb exhibited a specific binding ability to rMbST in a competitive antigen-coated ELISA format, which avidity was further improved after purification by rMbST N-terminus peptide-based affinity chromatography. These results suggest that immunodiscrimination between structurally related proteins can be achieved using immuno-enhanced immunogens such as MAPs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Oplatowska M.,Queen's University of Belfast | Elliott C.T.,Queen's University of Belfast | Huet A.-C.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe | McCarthy M.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 5 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of plant secondary metabolites with carcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties. When PA-producing plants contaminate crops, toxins can be transferred through the food chain and cause illness in humans and animals, most notably hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Honey has been identified as a direct risk of human exposure. The European Food Safety Authority has recently identified four groups of PAs that are of particular importance for food and feed: senecionine-type, lycopsamine-type, heliotrine-type and monocrotaline-type. Liquid or gas chromatography methods are currently used to detect PAs but there are no rapid screening assays available commercially. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid multiplex ELISA test for the representatives of three groups of alkaloids (senecionine, lycopsamine and heliotrine types) that would be used as a risk-management tool for the screening of these toxic compounds in food and feed. The method was validated for honey and feed matrices and was demonstrated to have a detection capability less than 25 μg/kg for jacobine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and senecionine. The zinc reduction step introduced to the extraction procedure allows for the additional detection of the presence of N-oxides of PAs. This first multiplex immunoassay for PA detection with N-oxide reduction can be used for the simultaneous screening of 21 samples for >12 PA analytes. Honey samples (n = 146) from various origins were analysed for PA determination. Six samples were determined to contain measurable PAs >25 μg/kg by ELISA which correlated to >10 μg/kg by LC-MS/MS. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Bienenmann-Ploum M.E.,Wageningen University | Huet A.-C.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe | Campbell K.,Queen's University of Belfast | Fodey T.L.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 5 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Coccidiostats are the only veterinary drugs still permitted to be used as feed additives to treat poultry for coccidiosis. To protect consumers, maximum levels for their presence in food and feed have been set by the European Union (EU). To monitor these coccidiostats, a rapid and inexpensive screening method would be a useful tool. The development of such a screening method, using a flow cytometry-based immunoassay, is described. The assay uses five sets of colour-coded paramagnetic microspheres for the detection of six selected priority coccidiostats. Different coccidiostats, with and without carrier proteins, were covalently coupled onto different bead sets and tested in combination with polyclonal antisera and with a fluorescent-labelled secondary antibody. The five optimal combinations were selected for this multiplex and a simple-to-use sample extraction method was applied for screening blank and spiked eggs and feed samples. A very good correlation (r ranging from 0.995 to 0.999) was obtained with the responses obtained in two different flow cytometers (Luminex 100 and FLEXMAP 3D). The sensitivities obtained were in accordance with the levels set by the EU as the measured limits of detection for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, diclazuril, nicarbazin (4,4′- dinitrocarbanilide) and monensin in eggs were 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 53 and 0.1 μg/kg and in feed 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 9 and 1.5 μg/kg, respectively. © 2012 The Author(s).


Michel B.,University of Liège | Fournier G.,University of Liège | Lieffrig F.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe | Costes B.,University of Liège | Vanderplasschen A.,University of Liège
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The recently designated cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an emerging agent that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp. Since its emergence in the late 1990s, this highly contagious pathogen has caused severe financial losses in common and koi carp culture industries worldwide. In addition to its economic role, recent studies suggest that CyHV-3 may have a role in fundamental research. CyHV-3 has the largest genome among viruses in the order Herpesvirales and serves as a model for mutagenesis of large DNA viruses. Other studies suggest that the skin of teleost fish represents an efficient portal of entry for certain viruses. The effect of temperature on viral replication suggests that the body temperature of its poikilotherm host could regulate the outcome of the infection (replicative vs. nonreplicative). Recent advances with regard to CyHV-3 provide a role for this virus in fundamental and applied research.


Huet A.-C.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe | Bienenmann-Ploum M.,Wageningen University | Vincent U.,European Commission | Delahaut P.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

This article presents a review of the current trends in the analysis of coccidiostats in various matrices, focusing principally on screening and rapid methods. Coccidiosis is an infectious disease having a high negative impact on the animal industry. Drugs are therefore necessary to prevent and/or to combat this disease. However, it is also of crucial importance that these veterinary drugs do not enter the human food chain. European legislation has therefore established the boundaries for the use of coccidiosats and has also addressed the unavoidable problem of cross-contamination of the feed, mainly caused by the use of the same production lines. Consequently there is a need for analytical methods and/or analytical strategies for the monitoring and control of the residues of anticoccidials, both in feed and in the resulting matrices for human consumption. In the frame of the European collaborative project CONffIDENCE, such attempts to establish the required analytical tools were made, which required beforehand a review of the state of the art in this domain. Aiming at this objective, in this review we consider the most interesting publications since 2000. In essence, both a rapid approach with mainly immunoassays and chromatographic methods were developed. To date, the obstacle to routine use of the first approach has been its inability to detect more than two compounds simultaneously, but recent developments in flow cytometry have made it possible to detect six coccidiostats at once. On the other hand, an increasingly popular approach for detecting multiple coccidiostats simultaneously is liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. There remains a need to adapt these analytical methods to legislative requirements. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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