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Bohn T.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2014

While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

Gutleb A.C.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Exposure to manmade particulate matter (PM) increased in the last century due to the enormous increase of human activities, but has since decreased due to political measures. PM exposure is not only linked with increased risks of lung cancer and respiratory diseases, but more and more information becomes available about PM at present exposure levels as a cause of cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms linking PM with the increased risk of cardiopulmonary disease are not fully understood. PM-mediated cardiac effects may involve pulmonary or systematic inflammatory responses including procoagulatory states and promotion of atherosclerotic lesions, in addition to alterations of the autonomous nervous system, ischemic responses in the myocardium, or altered ion channel functions in myocardial cells. Present knowledge on involved cellular mechanisms is still limited. The author reviews relevant in vitro models to study and elucidate these mechanisms in more detail. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Kuenzer C.,German Aerospace Center | Knauer K.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

Rice means life for millions of people and it is planted in many regions of the world. It primarily grows in the major river deltas of Asia and Southeast Asia, such as the Mekong Delta, known as the Rice Bowl of Vietnam, the second-largest rice-producing nation on Earth. However, Latin America, the USA, and Australia have extensive rice-growing regions. In addition, rice is the most rapidly growing source of food in Africa. Rice is therefore of significant importance to food security in an increasing number of low-income food-deficit countries. This review article gives a complementary overview of how remote sensing can support the assessment of paddy rice cultivation worldwide. This article presents and discusses methods for rice mapping and monitoring, differentiating between the results achievable using different sensors of various spectral characteristics and spatial resolution. The remote sensing of rice-growing areas can not only contribute to the precise mapping of rice areas and the assessment of the dynamics in rice-growing regions, but can also contribute to harvest prediction modelling, the analyses of plant diseases, the assessment of rice-based greenhouse gas (methane) emission due to vegetation submersion, the investigation of erosion-control-adapted agricultural systems, and the assessment of ecosystem services in rice-growing areas. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Pasquali M.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Migheli Q.,Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

This review summarises the genetic methods used for chemotype determination of the main Fusarium type B-trichothecene producing species. Literature on Fusarium chemotype epidemiology over the last 15 years is reviewed in order to describe temporal and spatial chemotype distribution of these fungi worldwide. Genetic approaches used for chemotype determination are also reviewed and discussed, highlighting successes and potential pitfalls of the technique. Results from both genetic and chemical approaches are summarised to compare reliability, advantages and limitations of the two methods. Potential applications of genetic chemotyping to toxigenic Fusarium species are evaluated in the light of improving food safety of agricultural products. The use of chemotype determination in population studies, toxin prediction as well as for breeding purpose is described. © 2014 .

Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Date: 2013-03-05

The present invention is directed to a container for storing and planting seeds, bulbs or tubers, the container comprising a housing made of a non-water soluble material, wherein the housing comprises a first compartment for receiving a seed, bulb or tuber, wherein the first compartment is essentially free of water, and a second compartment arranged below the first compartment, for receiving nutrients promoting growth of the seed, bulb or tuber. Still in accordance with the present invention, the container comprises a separation layer between the first and the second compartments, wherein the housing has a rounded shape at its bottom and the container has a center of gravity arranged such that the container is adapted to erect itself when it is deposited on a supporting surface in a tilted manner.

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