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Chavalarias D.,Center Danalyse Et Of Mathematique Sociales Cams | Chavalarias D.,Institute Des Systemes Complexes Of Paris Ile Of France Isc Pif
Scientometrics | Year: 2016

There is an increasing pressure on scholars to publish to further or sustain a career in academia. Governments and funding agencies are greedy of indicators based on scientific production to measure science output. But what exactly do we know about the relation between publication levels and advances in science? How do social dynamics and norms interfere with the quality of the scientific production? Are there different regimes of scientific dynamics? The present study proposes some concepts to think about scientific dynamics, through the modeling of the relation between science policies and scholars’ exploration–exploitation dilemmas. Passing, we analyze in detail the effects of the “publish or perish” policy, that turns out to have no significant effects in the developments of emerging scientific fields, while having detrimental impacts on the quality of the production of mature fields. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

Borghesi C.,Center Danalyse Et Of Mathematique Sociales Cams | Borghesi C.,Cergy-Pontoise University | Nadal J.-P.,Center Danalyse Et Of Mathematique Sociales Cams | Nadal J.-P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

A new viewpoint on electoral involvement is proposed from the study of the statistics of the proportions of abstentionists, blank and null, and votes according to list of choices, in a large number of national elections in different countries. Considering 11 countries without compulsory voting (Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland), a stylized fact emerges for the most populated cities when one computes the entropy associated to the three ratios, which we call the entropy of civic involvement of the electorate. The distribution of this entropy (over all elections and countries) appears to be sharply peaked near a common value. This almost common value is typically shared since the 1970s by electorates of the most populated municipalities, and this despite the wide disparities between voting systems and types of elections. Performing different statistical analyses, we notably show that this stylized fact reveals particular correlations between the blank/null votes and abstentionists ratios. We suggest that the existence of this hidden regularity, which we propose to coin as a 'weak law on recent electoral behavior among urban voters', reveals an emerging collective behavioral norm characteristic of urban citizen voting behavior in modern democracies. Analyzing exceptions to the rule provides insights into the conditions under which this normative behavior can be expected to occur. © 2012 Borghesi et al.

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