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Marseille, France

Saoudi A.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Zeghnoun A.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Bidondo M.-L.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Garnier R.,Center antipoison | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74. years and children aged 3-17. years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs + MMA + DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3. days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs + MMA + DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs + MMA + DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L).Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS + MMA + DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels of arsenic (10 μg/g of creatinine). It shows that urinary arsenic concentrations in the French adult population (in particular concentrations of iAs + MMA + DMA) were relatively low compared with foreign data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Vial T.,Center antipoison
Therapie | Year: 2016

Pharmacovigilance aims to identify unknown adverse drug reactions once clinical development is complete, in order to promote improved use of drugs, and thus a reduction in risk for every exposed patient. We describe in this article the missions of French pharmacovigilance system, including French drug agency, Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance, health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, patients and their associations. We also develop the French pharmacovigilance organization, its perspectives and challenges, both in French and European levels. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of the Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Source

Frauger E.,Marseille University Hospital Center | Frauger E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pauly V.,Center Associe | Pradel V.,Marseille University Hospital Center | And 6 more authors.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Recent observations suggest the existence of clonazepam abuse. To determine its importance in France, a quantitative and systematic synthesis of all clonazepam data of several epidemiological tools of the Centers for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) network has been performed in comparison with data on others benzodiazepines (BZD). Data on clonazepam and other BZD have been analysed from different epidemiological tools: OSIAP survey that identifies drugs obtained by means of falsified prescriptions, Observation of Illegal Drugs and Misuse of Psychotropic Medications (OPPIDUM) survey that describes modalities of use and data from regional French health reimbursement system. In OSIAP survey, the proportion of clonazepam falsified prescriptions among all BZD falsified prescriptions increased. During the 2006 OPPIDUM survey, the analysis of the BZD modalities of use highlights clonazepam abuse liability (for example 23% of illegal acquisition), in second rank after flunitrazepam. Studies based on data from the French health reimbursed system show that 1.5% of subjects with clonazepam dispensing had a deviant behaviour. Among BZD, clonazepam has the second most important doctor-shopping indicator (3%) after flunitrazepam. All these data provide some arguments in favour of clonazepam abuse liability in real life and the necessity to reinforce its monitoring. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Source

Timour Q.,University of Lyon | Timour Q.,Center antipoison | Frassati D.,Center Hospitalier Specialise le Vinatier | Descotes J.,Center antipoison | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Mortality rate is high in psychiatric patients versus general population. An important cause of this increased mortality is sudden cardiac death (SCD) as a major side-effect of psychotropic drugs. These SCDs generally result from arrhythmias occurring when the posology is high and may attain a toxic threshold but also at dosages within therapeutic range, in the presence of risk factors.There are three kinds of risk factors: physiological (e.g., low cardiac rate of sportsmen), physiopathological (e.g., hepatic insufficiency, hypothyroidism) and "therapeutic" (due to interactions between psychotropic drugs and other medicines). Association of pharmacological agents may increase the likelihood of SCDs either by (i) a pharmacokinetic mechanism (e.g., increased torsadogenic potential of a psychotropic drug when its destruction and/or elimination are compromised) or (ii) a pharmacodynamical mechanism (e.g., mutual potentiation of proarrhythmic properties of two drugs). In addition, some psychotropic drugs may induce sudden death in cases of pre-existing congenital cardiopathies such as (i) congenital long QT syndrome, predisposing to torsade de pointes that eventually cause syncope and sudden death. (ii) A Brugada syndrome, that may directly cause ventricular fibrillation due to reduced sodium current through Nav1.5 channels. Moreover, psychotropic drugs may be a direct cause of cardiac lesions also leading to SCD. This is the case, for example, of phenothiazines responsible for ischemic coronaropathies and of clozapine that is involved in the occurrence of myocarditis. The aims of this work are to delineate: (i) the risk of SCD related to the use of psychotropic drugs; (ii) mechanisms involved in the occurrence of such SCD; (iii) preventive actions of psychotropic drugs side effects, on the basis of the knowledge of patient-specific risk factors, documented from clinical history, ionic balance, and ECG investigation by the psychiatrist. © 2012 Timour, Frassati, Descotes, Chevalier, Christé and Chahine. Source

Tichadou L.,Center antipoison | Glaizal M.,Center antipoison | Armengaud A.,Cellule Interregionale dEpidemiologie Sud | Grossel H.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Objective. Ostreopsis ovata and Ostreopsis siamensis are tropical unicellular algae that have been found recently in the Mediterranean. Both of these dinoflagellates produce palytoxin (PTX)-like toxins that are powerful vasoconstrictors in mammals. Since 2003, Ostreopsis blooms in Italy and Spain have been accompanied by reports of respiratory problems and skinmucosa irritation in persons in contact with toxic microalgal cells (epiphytes, plankton, or sea spray) or associated toxins. Methods. In France, a surveillance network has been set up to monitor water conditions and to protect swimmers from contamination due to Ostreopsis. Results. Between 2006 and 2009, a total of nine blooms were observed on the French Mediterranean coast including five that led to manifestations in divers, swimmers, and shoreline inhabitants. A total of 47 patients presented symptoms of involving benign or mild skin, mucosal, andor respiratory irritation that regressed spontaneously without treatment within 1272 h (412 h with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). During the study period, five beaches were temporarily closed. Discussion. In the Mediterranean, Ostreopsis blooms induce skin and respiratory disorders when human beings are exposed to saltwater with a high concentration of algal cells. However, palytoxin dosages carried out on the food chain (urchins, mussels) indicate that this risk of toxins accumulation in seafood must be taken into account and that the surveillance network should be upgraded accordingly. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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