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Gauthier G.,Universite de Sherbrooke | St-Onge C.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Tavares W.,McMaster University | Tavares W.,Centennial College | Tavares W.,University of Sfax
Medical Education | Year: 2016

Background: Given the complexity of competency frameworks, associated skills and abilities, and contexts in which they are to be assessed in competency-based education (CBE), there is an increased reliance on rater judgements when considering trainee performance. This increased dependence on rater-based assessment has led to the emergence of rater cognition as a field of research in health professions education. The topic, however, is often conceptualised and ultimately investigated using many different perspectives and theoretical frameworks. Critically analysing how researchers think about, study and discuss rater cognition or the judgement processes in assessment frameworks may provide meaningful and efficient directions in how the field continues to explore the topic. Methods: We conducted a critical and integrative review of the literature to explore common conceptualisations and unified terminology associated with rater cognition research. We identified 1045 articles on rater-based assessment in health professions education using Scorpus, Medline and ERIC and 78 articles were included in our review. Results: We propose a three-phase framework of observation, processing and integration. We situate nine specific mechanisms and sub-mechanisms described across the literature within these phases: (i) generating automatic impressions about the person; (ii) formulating high-level inferences; (iii) focusing on different dimensions of competencies; (iv) categorising through well-developed schemata based on (a) personal concept of competence, (b) comparison with various exemplars and (c) task and context specificity; (v) weighting and synthesising information differently, (vi) producing narrative judgements; and (vii) translating narrative judgements into scales. Conclusion: Our review has allowed us to identify common underlying conceptualisations of observed rater mechanisms and subsequently propose a comprehensive, although complex, framework for the dynamic and contextual nature of the rating process. This framework could help bridge the gap between researchers adopting different perspectives when studying rater cognition and enable the interpretation of contradictory findings of raters' performance by determining which mechanism is enabled or disabled in any given context Discuss ideas arising from the article at www.mededuc.com discuss. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Wu A.M.S.,University of Macau | Cheung V.I.,University of Macau | Ku L.,University of Macau | Hung E.P.W.,Centennial College
Journal of Behavioral Addictions | Year: 2013

Background and aims: Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. Results: The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó.

Khan M.U.,Centennial College
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2015

Security specifications are controls and constraints on the behavior of the software and can be used to develop more secure software from the beginning. Many specification languages have been proposed to represent security specifications. However, all these specification languages are at a higher level of abstraction and can only be used to represent overall business-level design decisions. Such specifications provide guidance to the developers but do not lay out the details of the dynamic behavior that has to be implemented during the coding phase. In this paper, we propose to use UML state machine diagrams to represent detailed dynamic behavior of design-level security specifications. We argue that these behaviors when used by the developer for implementation will enable them to avoid crucial security vulnerabilities. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

Zandi M.,Centennial College | Dong M.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Grami A.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2016

We design distributed online learning and channel access for secondary users in a cognitive radio network. Our goal is to design channel selection and access that can effectively adapt to a wide range of traffic load patterns in the primary network. We propose a distributed adaptive learning and access policy by applying stochastic learning automata (SLA), where each secondary user (SU) probabilistically chooses one of the most available channels to access, with the channel selection probabilities being updated based on the collision events. Our design includes two underlying distributed learning algorithms: learning of primary channel availabilities from each SU's own sensing history, and SLA-based learning of channel selection from each SU's own collision history for collision avoidance. We show that some existing distributed access policies can be viewed as special cases of our proposed adaptive policy, with a set of fixed channel selection probabilities. Next, we formulate the distributed channel selection and access problem as a noncooperative game. We show that it is an exact potential game with at least one pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE). We prove that, under our proposed adaptive policy, the channel selection probabilities converge toward a pure strategy NE of the game. Simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed adaptive policy in a wide range of distributions of mean channel availabilities, as compared with other existing policies. © 2015 IEEE.

Bigham B.L.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Bigham B.L.,Centennial College | Kennedy S.M.,Sunnybrook Center for Prehospital Medicine | Drennan I.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | And 3 more authors.
Prehospital Emergency Care | Year: 2013

Background. Paramedics are an important health human resource and are uniquely mobile in most communities across Canada. In the last dozen years, challenges in the delivery of health care have prompted governments from around the globe to consider expanding the role paramedics play in health systems. Utilizing paramedics for the management of urgent, low-acuity illnesses and injuries has been coined "community paramedicine," but the role, safety, and effectiveness of this concept are poorly understood. Objective. We undertook a systematic review of the international literature to describe existing community paramedic programs. Method. We used the Cochrane methodology for systematic reviews. An international group of experts developed a search strategy and a health information specialist executed this search in Medline, Embase, and CINAHL starting January 1, 2000. We included all research articles in the English language that reported a research methodology. We excluded commentaries and letters to the editor. Two investigators independently screened citations in a hierarchical manner and abstracted data. Results. Of 3,089 titles, 10 articles were included in the systematic review and one additional paper was author-nominated. The nature of the 11 articles was heterogeneous, and only one randomized controlled trial (RCT) was found. This trial showed community paramedicine to be beneficial to patients and health systems. The other articles drew conclusions favoring community paramedicine. Conclusion. Community paramedicine research to date is lacking, but programs in the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada are perceived to be promising, and one RCT shows that paramedics can safely practice with an expanded scope and improve system performance and patient outcomes. Further research is required to fully understand how expanding paramedic roles affect patients, communities, and health systems. © 2013 National Association of EMS Physicians.

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