Jayapura, Indonesia

Cenderawasih University

Jayapura, Indonesia

Universitas Cenderawasih is a university in Jayapura, in the province Papua, Indonesia. The university is the leading educational institution in the province.The university has faculties in economics, law, teacher training and education, medical, engineering, and social and political science. Until 2002 the university had a faculty of agricultural science at Manokwari, which was then separated to form the Universitas Negeri Papua. The university is divided into two areas: mainly the "Kampus lama" which is in the Jayapura suburb of Abepura and the "Kampus baru" which is in the hillside of Waena walley. Wikipedia.

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Wambrauw E.V.,Cenderawasih University | Morgan T.K.K.B.,University of Auckland
International Journal of Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2017

Land use choices will impact on ecosystem integrity, and, in the case of agriculture, particularly on the availability of water and extreme events associated with climate change. In 2006, the Merauke Regency in southern Papua was identified for agricultural development as a national food basket for Indonesia. The Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE) has caused much controversy and aggravated relationships between the stakeholders, including non-government organisations, investors, the local government, and the Indigenous People. In the contexts of such complexity, it is useful to understand the big picture and how it is perceived to impact upon different stakeholders. This integrated assessment of the sustainability of the MIFEE project makes a useful contribution to the MIFEE discourse. The Mauri Model Decision Making Framework is a unique sustainability assessment approach that enhances community understanding of complex problems. The conceptual basis of the framework is “mauri,” the binding force between spirit and substance that enables life and enhances wellbeing. The framework has been successfully applied to the assessment of the sustainability of the water supply in Agats Township in Southern Papua. The application of the Mauri Model in this foreign context was first evaluated in terms of the transferability of the framework and its suitability for use in a different international context. An extrapolation of the research findings determined that it is feasible to apply the Mauri Model in the Merauke Regency also. The objective of this research is to evaluate the sustainability of MIFEE regarding possible development scenarios and the pre-MIFEE existing condition from different stakeholder perspectives. The Mauri Model results provide a useful graphical representation of the change in “mauri” (wellbeing) caused by different options over time. The analysis clearly identifies a superior option. The decision taken to proceed with a different option indicates that the option implemented may not endure over time given the inadequate consideration of the impacts upon the Malind-Anim Indigenous Peoples. © Common Ground, Elisabeth Veronika Wambrauw and Te Kipa Kepa Brian Morgan, All Rights Reserved.

Bhiftime E.I.,Cenderawasih University | Belo J.B.,Dili Institute of Technology
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with ceramics offer high mechanical and good physical properties as compared with corresponding monolithic alloy. MMCs reinforced with SiCp particles in the semi-solid stir casting method was the most simple way. The purpose of the study was to investigate the difference of the microstructure and mechanical properties of SiCp particles reinforced magnesium matrix composites, as well as the changing effects on the extra level of SiCp and TiB, as well as the changing effects on the extra level of SiCp and TiB. The composites used were AZ81A Mg alloy as the matrix and SiCp as the reinforcement (3, 6, 9 wt%). The casting method used in the study was the semi-solid stir casting. The mechanical properties of the composites fabricated by different parameters indicated that semi-solid method resulted improved in nonhomogeneous particle distribution 3-9 wt.% SiCp/AZ81A composites were fabricated by the novel processing. The particle distribution was uniform in these composites. Grain sizes of composites will be much smoother by giving TiB. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elastic modulus were enhanced as the particle contents increased. The morphology of the composite between the reinforcing SiCp particle and the AZ81A matrix was to be able to unite and to be dispersed evenly. Specimens were tested focusing on the tensile strength, yield strength microstructure and SEM. © 2016 Author(s).

Bhiftime E.I.,Cenderawasih University | Gueterres N.F.D.S.,Dili Institute of Technology
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

Employing the semi-solid stir casting method to strengthen MMCs by SiCp particle was the simplest way in the casting process. The strength and toughness of a composite material can be obtained through a combination of the A356 / Al7Si composites and SiCp particle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the mechanical properties of Al7Si1Mg/SiCp and Al7Si1Mg1.5TiB/SiCp composites, as well as the changing effects on the extra level of SiCp particle. Al7Si was used as matrix strengthened by SiCp with the percentage variations of 10, 15, 20 wt%. The additional level of 1.5 wt% AlTiB aimed for increasing the matrix grain refinement. The semi-solid stir casting method was performed to spread the SiCp particles evenly in the liquid matrix. The results of the study were the tensile strength value of as much as 143 MPa or the increase of 22.16%. The biggest yield strength on the Al7Si1Mg1.5TiB/SiCp composite was averagely as much as 106 MPa. The highest impact toughness was averagely amounted to 4.74 J/mm2. The lowest porosity value was averagely 2.10%. The morphology of the composite between the reinforcing particle and the matrix was able to unite and to be dispersed evenly. The present study was conducted through density test, tensile test, impact test, microstructure test, and SEM. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Kawulur H.S.I.,Papua Biomedical Research and Development Institute | Ngili Y.,Cenderawasih University
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2016

RIF resistance due to mutations in the rpoB gene, the gene that produces RNA polymerase ß-subunit and INH resistance is largely due to mutations in the gene katG. With the increasing number of people with HIV/AIDS cause TB disease, WHO categorizes as a re-emerging disease. Objective of this study was to obtain information MDR-TB relations with the relevant genes, as well as information combined genotype of M. tuberculosis. Here, we reported that their C1363A nucleotide changes (Pro535His) in M. tuberculosis sensitive six antituberculosis drugs showed entire rpoB mutations causing resistance properties. On the basis of this phenomenon, it can be suggested that the formation mechanism of MDR-TB strains begins with rpoB mutations followed by mutation katG. This study shows that the mechanism of resistance to an anti-tuberculosis drug that only affects a single gene, such as rifampin affecting rpoB, will be more easily controlled than anti-tuberculosis drugs that affect multiple genes, for example isoniazid affecting other genes other than katG. The analysis showed a residue that forms a bond with a hydroxyl group of RIF will provide the most impact when there is a change of amino acid residues. Ser411 residue (531 homolog in M. tuberculosis), has the shortest distance to the RIF and form bonds. Changes in the amino acid residues have caused the greatest effect on the phenotype of M. tuberculosis. The change of leucine amino acid serine be causing changes in the bond and also the distance between the amino acid residues with the RIF. It is visible at the level of resistant isolates have mutations rpoB531 relatively higher compared to other mutations in codon rpoB.

Tanjung R.H.R.,Cenderawasih University | Ngili Y.,Cenderawasih University
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2016

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Resistance to RIF is caused by mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the β subunit of RNA polymerase, with the highest frequency at codon 526 and 531. While Isoniazid is a prodrug, must be activated by the enzyme catalase-peroxidase encoded by the gene katG of M. tuberculosis, this gene mutation resulting in INH resistant. The purpose of this research is to obtain information on the cause of the genotype level resistance to INH in clinical isolates of the MDR-TB. Stages of research conducted here is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allelespecific multiplex katG, agarose gel electrophoresis, determining the nucleotide sequence, and in silico analysis. Results PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis for all isolates showed two DNA bands measuring 0.4 kb and 0.3 kb. Homology analysis to compare the results of sequencing electropherogram 0.4 kb fragment katG gene of the isolates with the same fragment of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv standard. PyMOL modeling results describe the position of each amino acid as a result of mutations in the DNA level in the three-dimensional structure of protein molecules M. tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase. Analysis of data obtained showed that the mutation G946T three isolates located at codon 316, GGC into TGC, resulting in the amino acid glycine is mutated to cysteine. Simulation of the spatial structure of catalase peroxidase with PyMOL program showed 316 amino acid residues near the active site binding INH. Catalase-peroxidase simulation with PyMOL program showed 290 amino acid residues located in the N terminus loop area and relatively far from the active site, the effect of these mutations and their relationship in the nature of resistance to INH unknown. Other isolates G795A mutated nucleotide located at codon 265, TTG into TTA, but did not cause amino acid changes that can be ascertained that the mutation is not the cause of the nature of the resistance. While isolate mutated at codon 315, which has been proven as a cause of INH resistance. The results of this study are expected to provide new information on the position of the mutation in the gene katG of M. tuberculosis that is resistant to INH therefore G946T mutation (Gly316Cys) and C896T (Ala290Val) to isolate not been previously reported. © 2016, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

Walukow A.F.,Cenderawasih University
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2016

Sentani lake at Jayapura is source of fresh water that most of its territory, located in Jayapura regency and natural waters that are teeming with activities of daily transport and various kinds of human activities. Water function of Sentani lake are for water needs, as well as the utilization of hydropower is used for irrigation in agriculture, fisheries and transport water and it also is a place carry a wide variety of contaminants, including in the form of organic and inorganic components. Inorganic components, is a dangerous heavy metals. Some heavy metals are dangerous and often pollute the water environment or water bodies are mainly mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), arsenite (As), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni). The first problem is high of erosion number 94.52 ton/hectare/year that the value higher than value of erosion tolerance number 25 ton/hectare/year. Second problem is chemical pollution indicated by high concentration Cu (0.020-0.054 mg/L). Those concentration are exceeds water quality standard that approve by government in Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 about management water quality and water pollution control. There for is needed research and management for sustainable of Sentani Lake. The aims of this research are to analyze about the pollution load Sentani Lake, and to analyze the assimilation capacity Sentani Lake aquaculture. The research method are survey and experiment. Results from a research showed that the load of pollution from river is obtained as follow (each in ton/month) is Cu metal (ranges between 0.025 to 0.273). The assimilation capacity from lake is obtained as follow (in ton.month) is Cu (0.0613). The load of pollution are uper of the assimilation capacity.

Mandik Y.I.,Cenderawasih University | Mandik Y.I.,Prince of Songkla University | Cheirsilp B.,Prince of Songkla University | Boonsawang P.,Prince of Songkla University | Prasertsan P.,Prince of Songkla University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

This study aimed to optimize flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluate its composition in different cultivation modes. Among three flocculants including Al3+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ tested, Al3+ was most effective for harvesting microalgal biomass. Four important parameters for flocculation were optimized through response surface methodology. The maximum flocculation efficiency in photoautotrophic culture was achieved at pH 10, flocculation time of 15min, Al3+ concentration of 2.22mM and microalgal cells of 0.47g/L. The flocculation in mixotrophic culture required lower amount of Al3+ (0.74mM) than that in photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures (2.22mM). The biomass harvested from mixotrophic culture contained lipid at the highest content of 42.08±0.58% followed by photoautotrophic (32.08±3.88%) and heterotrophic (30.42±1.13%) cultures. The lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) contained protein as high as 38-44% and several minerals showing their potential use as animal feed and their carbohydrate content were 16-29%. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Pangau-Adam M.,University of Gottingen | Pangau-Adam M.,Cenderawasih University | Noske R.,Charles Darwin University | Muehlenberg M.,University of Gottingen
Human Ecology | Year: 2012

It is well known that wild game provides a significant proportion of the dietary protein of the indigenous people of the eastern half of New Guinea (PNG), but almost nothing is known of its importance in the western half (the Indonesian province of Papua or Irian Jaya). We quantified hunting effort, harvest rates and wild meat consumption and sale in the Jayapura region of north-east Papua through interviews with 147 hunters from 21 villages and meal surveys in 93 households. Ten species of mammals, seven species of birds and at least two species of reptiles were harvested in our study area, but the introduced wild pig and rusa deer were the major target species. Hunting in our study area has shifted from a purely subsistence activity towards a more commercial form at least partly due to the emergence of markets created by Indonesian transmigrants. Although the hunting of non-indigenous and certain native species might be sustainable, the maintenance of populations of large threatened species will require sensitive management. © 2012 The Author(s).

Research related to MDR-TB have been done either to determine the nature of resistance, nucleotide sequence analysis, determining the position of a mutation in the region Mtb, phylogenetic analysis, and determination of the mechanism of drug resistance through in silico analysis of biomolecular. Due to a mutation of rpoB, particularly in the hotspot or RRDR (rifampin resistance-determining region), then RIF could not inhibit the action of RNA polymerase because it can not bind β-subunit, causing resistance to RIF. Meanwhile, INH requires activation process by the catalase-peroxidase enzyme produced by M. tuberculosis. Most of INH resistance occurs due to mutations in katG gene, the gene that produces the enzyme catalase-peroxidase, so that INH can not be converted into an active form. Currently identified katG mutations cause only resistance mutations in codon 315. A small part of INH resistance can occur because of a gene mutation InhA, ahpC and kasA, as well as other genes that correlate. Here, we reported that results of analysis performed by determining the nucleotide sequence of DNA segments using the forward and reverse primer amplification product on multiplex PCR. The primer pair amplifying the length of approximately 0.25 kb and 0.44 kb, respectively for the rpoB and katG. Primer rpoB nucleotide flanking region between 1521 and 1730, or between codons 507 and 576. Thus, a hotspot for nature resistant to rifampin or also called RRDR located between codons 507 and 533 amplify entirely. Meanwhile, the determination of the nucleotide sequence of katG segment bounded by the nucleotide sequence of 675 and 1104. This research has the potential to determine the appropriate drugs and vaccines in the future through cooperation among various fields of science: medical clinics, pharmacology, molecular biochemistry, biostatistics, and molecular microbiology.

Ohee H.L.,Cenderawasih University
Biodiversitas | Year: 2016

New Guinea’s freshwater fish diversity may reach 400 species, twice the number of fish recorded in Australia. However, New Guinea’s freshwater fishes are facing rapid and poorly-planned social and economic developments, which have accelerated both habitat loss and degradation, impacting its unique biodiversity and threatening natural ecosystems. This study documents freshwater fish diversity and threats due to habitat conservation from oil palm development in the Timika Region, Papua. Fishes were sampled in canals, creeks, streams and rivers in the concession area of Pusaka Agro Lestari Company (PT. PAL) using seine and hand nets and a spear gun. Twenty two freshwater fish species in 15 families and 15 genera were recorded from the area. One of them is an endemic species of Timika (Glossamia timika), one rainbowfish species with a restricted Southern New Guinea distribution, and 12 other native fishes. Land clearing leads to increase water turbidity and sedimentation, water temperature, and pollution which are potential threats to native fishes and their habitats. The fact that PAL’s concession is part of distribution area of known distribution of G. timika in Timika vicinity, habitat conversion to palm oil elevates the threat to this species. Hopefully, PT. PAL will adopt necessary conservation measures to mitigate the potential impact during the land clearing, especially, if they leave riparian buffer regions intact to protect aquatic habitats when clearing land. © 2016, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All rights reserved.

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