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Piracicaba, Brazil

Martinelli L.A.,CENA | Martinelli L.A.,Stanford University | Naylor R.,Stanford University | Vitousek P.M.,Stanford University | Moutinho P.,IPAM
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2010

Brazil has developed a large-scale commercial agricultural system, recognized worldwide for its role in domestic economic growth and expanding exports. However, the success of this sector has been associated with widespread destruction of Brazilian ecosystems, especially the Cerrado and the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, as well as environmental degradation. Brazil's agricultural development has also led to land consolidation, aggravating a historical land distribution inequality. This pattern of agricultural growth has reinforced Brazil' status as one of the world's most inequitable countries in terms of income distribution, making it difficult to assert that the nation is pursuing a sustainable development path. In order to achieve sustainable development Brazil must reconcile its increasingly productive, modern tropical agricultural system with environmental preservation, social equity, and poverty alleviation in rural and urban areas. Although a daunting task, Brazil has the opportunity to lead tropical countries in combining modernized agriculture with highly diverse and functional ecosystems. Continued improvement in socio-economic conditions is equally important and will require stronger efforts to decrease inequalities in income and land distribution in the rural sector. © 2010. Source


Van Haren J.,University of Arizona | de Oliveira R.C.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Beldini P.T.,Federal University of Para | de Camargo P.B.,CENA | And 2 more authors.
Biotropica | Year: 2013

Tropical plantations are considered a viable option to sequester carbon on abandoned agricultural lands, but implications of tree species selection for overall greenhouse gas budgets on plantations have been little studied. During three wet seasons, we investigated the influence of nine tree species on soil pH, temperature (ST), bulk density (BD), moisture content water filled pore space (WFPS), and greenhouse gas fluxes in diverse forest sites and monoculture plantation plots. All sites were on clay-rich soils of the Barreiras formation, in east-central Amazônia, Brazil. We found that ST and BD were 0.6°C and 0.2 g/cm3 higher in the plantation relative to the forest, and soil CH4, CO,2 and N2O fluxes were, respectively, 38, 12, 62, percent lower in the plantation. Tree growth rates were highly variable on the plantation, with the mean comparable to the forest sites. Tree species identity mattered (P < 0.01) for all soil properties and gas fluxes on the plantation, but only for pH, BD, WFPS, and N2O fluxes in the forest. The species rank order of pH and N2O fluxes in the forest, however, were unlike the plantation. Tree growth rates were a strong predictor for soil WFPS, and together with location, they also explained 75 percent of the mean N2O flux variation. Our study indicates that: (1) tree species influence soil processes; and (2) high tree growth and low soil gas emissions imply a reduced climate forcing effect from plantations, especially when planted with fast-growing legume species on abandoned farmland. © 2013 The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation. Source


Schiocchet M.A.,Epagri | Noldin J.A.,Epagri | Raimondi J.V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Neto A.T.,CENA | And 8 more authors.
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2014

The new rice cultivar, SCS118 Marques, was obtained through gamma irradiation of SCSBRS Tio Taka cultivar. SCS118 Marques presents modern architecture, lodging resistance, late maturity cycle, moderate resistance to blast, high yield potential, long grains and very high cooking quality. Industrial tests performed with SCS118 Marques showed that grains are suitable for parboiling and white rice, and it is recommended to all rice-producing regions of Santa Catarina. Source


Rottenberg X.,IMEC | Jansen R.,IMEC | Cherman V.,IMEC | Witvrouw A.,IMEC | And 4 more authors.
IEEE SENSORS 2013 - Proceedings | Year: 2013

This paper demonstrates for the first time the use of meta-materials (MTM) in bulk acoustic wave resonators (BARs) for sensing applications under atmospheric pressure conditions. Key is the observation that implementing square holes in the BARs modifies their specific surface area (area-to-volume ratio) and lowers their mass. We establish through simulations and measurements that increasing the perforation density and decreasing the perforation pitch both improve the sensitivity of BARs, in the limit becoming independent of the BAR thickness. The thickness can thus be increased without paying a penalty in lowering the motional impedance of the BARs, while easing the specifications for drive and readout circuitry. We finally report a measured improvement in DNA detection sensitivity by more than one order of magnitude enabled by introducing MTM in BARs implemented in the SiGe-MEMS process from IMEC. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Martinelli L.A.,CENA | Nardoto G.B.,CENA | Chesson L.A.,University of Utah | Chesson L.A.,SALt Inc | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The Big Mac®, McDonald's® signature burger, is a global food served in over 100 countries. We measured carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios of Big Macs® from twenty-six countries. The δ13C values varied from -25.4‰ to -11.1‰, representing cattle-rearing systems based exclusively on C 3 plants, exclusively on C4 plants, or both C3 and C4 plants. Median δ15N value was 6.6‰; the 25th and 75th percentile were 5.9‰ and 7.3‰, respectively. Calculated percentages of imported beef were consistent with the δ13C values of purchased Big Macs®. Japanese patties had higher δ13C values than expected based on that country's C 3 agriculture, however Japan imports beef from Australia, where C4 plants are prevalent. Lower latitude countries generally had higher δ13C values than higher latitude countries, reflecting the larger distribution of C4 plants in warm regions. Although Big Macs® are a global food, we conclude they also contain local components. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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