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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Trouillas M.,Sanguine | Prat M.,Sanguine | Doucet C.,Celogos | Ernou I.,Sanguine | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction. This study investigated the promising effect of a new Platelet Glue obtained from Cryoprecipitation of Apheresis Platelet products (PGCAP) used in combination with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) loaded on ceramic biomaterials to provide novel strategies enhancing bone repair. Methods. PGCAP growth factor content was analyzed by ELISA and compared to other platelet and plasma-derived products. MSC loaded on biomaterials (65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP or 100% beta-TCP) were embedded in PGCAP and grown in presence or not of osteogenic induction medium for 21 days. Biomaterials were then implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice for 28 days. Effect of PGCAP on MSC was evaluated in vitro by proliferation and osteoblastic gene expression analysis and in vivo by histology and immunohistochemistry. Results: We showed that PGCAP, compared to other platelet-derived products, allowed concentrating large amount of growth factors and cytokines which promoted MSC and osteoprogenitor proliferation. Next, we found that PGCAP improves the proliferation of MSC and osteogenic-induced MSC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PGCAP up-regulates the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers (Collagen type I, Osteonectin, Osteopontin and Runx2). In vivo, type I collagen expressed in ectopic bone-like tissue was highly enhanced in biomaterials embedded in PGCAP in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. Better results were obtained with 65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP biomaterials as compared to 100% beta-TCP. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that PGCAP is able to enhance in vitro MSC proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation and in vivo bone formation in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. This clinically adaptable platelet glue could be of interest for improving bone repair. © 2013 Trouillas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Bisson A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bisson A.,University of Rouen | Freret M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Freret M.,University of Rouen | And 15 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2015

Fecal incontinence (FI) remains a socially isolating condition with profound impact on quality of life for which autologous myoblast cell therapy represents an attractive treatment option. We developed an animal model of FI and investigated the possibility of improving sphincter function by intrasphincteric injection of syngeneic myoblasts. Several types of anal cryoinjuries were evaluated on anesthetized Fischer rats receiving analgesics. The minimal lesion yielding sustainable anal sphincter deficiency was a 90° cryoinjury of the sphincter, repeated after a 24-h interval. Anal sphincter pressure was evaluated longitudinally by anorectal manometry under local electrostimulation. Myoblasts were prepared using a protocol mimicking a clinical-grade process and further transduced with a GFP-encoding lentiviral vector before intrasphincteric injection. Experimental groups were uninjured controls, cryoinjured + PBS, and cryoinjured + myoblasts (different doses or injection site). Myoblast injection was well tolerated. Transferred myoblasts expressing GFP integrated into the sphincter and differentiated in situ into dystrophin-positive mature myofibers. Posttreatment sphincter pressures increased over time. At day 60, pressures in the treated group were significantly higher than those of PBS-injected controls and not significantly different from those of normal rats. Longitudinal follow-up showed stability of the therapeutic effect on sphincter function over a period of 6 months. Intrasphincteric myoblast injections at the lesion borders were equally as effective as intralesion administration, but an injection opposite to the lesion was not. These results provide proof of principle for myoblast cell therapy to treat FI in a rat model. This strategy is currently being evaluated in humans in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Source


Alexaline M.M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Trouillas M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Nivet M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bourreau E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Cultured epithelial autografts (CEAs) produced from a small, healthy skin biopsy represent a lifesaving surgical technique in cases of full-thickness skin burn covering >50% of total body surface area. CEAs also present numerous drawbacks, among them the use of animal proteins and cells, the high fragility of keratinocyte sheets, and the immaturity of the dermal-epidermal junction, leading to heavy cosmetic and functional sequelae. To overcome these weaknesses, we developed a human plasma-based epidermal substitute (hPBES) for epidermal coverage in cases of massive burn, as an alternative to traditional CEA, and set up critical quality controls for preclinical and clinical studies. In this study, phenotypical analyses in conjunction with functional as says (clonal analysis, long-term culture, or in vivo graft) showed that our new substitute fulfills the biological requirements for epidermal regeneration. hPBES keratinocytes showed high potential for cell proliferation and subsequent differentiation similar to healthy skin compared with a well-known reference material, as ascertained by a combination of quality controls. This work highlights the importance of integrating relevant multi-parameter quality controls into the bioengineering of new skin substitutes before they reach clinical development. © AlphaMed Press 2015. Source


Bisson A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bisson A.,University of Rouen | Le Corre S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Le Corre S.,University of Rouen | And 25 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2014

Genetic alterations have recently been described as emerging during the culture of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, raising concerns about their safety in future clinical use. Myoblasts are adult stem cells with important therapeutic potential that have been used in clinical trials for almost 20 years, but their genome integrity has not yet been established. Here we produced 10 human myoblast preparations and investigated their genomic stability. At the third passage, half of the preparations had a normal karyotype and half showed one to four alterations/30 metaphases. Chromosome 2 trisomy was found in 1-2/30 metaphases and/or 2/100 nuclei by FISH in 3/10 samples, and there was no other recurrent anomaly. When prolonging cultures, these erratic abnormalities were never associated with a growth advantage. Cellular senescence was manifested in all samples by growth arrest before passage 15. Expression of TERT was always negative. Molecular analysis of individual p53 transcripts did not reveal tumorigenic mutations. CGH array (10 samples) and exome sequencing (one sample) failed to detect copy number variations or accumulation of mutations, respectively. Myoblasts did not grow either in soft agar or in vivo after injection in immunodeficient mice. Hence, occasional genomic abnormalities may occur during myoblast culture but are not associated with risk of transformation. © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Source


Purpose: Cell therapy for urinary incontinence management has been experienced in animals with encouraging results, but studies in human beings are lacking. Our primary objective was to assess the safety of intrasphincteric injections of autologous muscular cells in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI). Secondary objectives focused on complications efficacy. Methods: We conducted an open, prospective study in a single center on 12 patients presenting PPI. Patients underwent intrasphincteric injections of autologous muscular cells isolated from a biopsy of deltoid muscle. The primary endpoint was the Qmax variation at the three month visit in order to assess potential bladder outlet obstruction. Secondary endpoints assessed side effects and efficacy parameters based on symptoms, quality of life score, voiding diary, pad-test, and urethral pressure profile at one, two, three, six and 12 months after injection. Results: No immediate complication occurred and no significant variation was noted on Qmax. The only side effects possibly product-related were three cases of urinary tract infection treated by antibiotics. An acceptable safety and tolerability of the procedure whatever the injected dose of muscular cells was demonstrated. Results on efficacy after one year were heterogeneous, with 4/12 patients describing reduced urine leakage episodes, 1/12 patient presenting increased maximal closure pressure, and 8/12 patients showing improvement on pad-test. Conclusions: Cell therapy consisting of intrasphincteric injections of autologous muscular cells in patients with PPI was a feasible and safe procedure. The results point out that some subjects may positively respond to this procedure, but clinical efficacy remains to be confirmed. © 2011. Source

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