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Werngren J.,Public Health Agency of Sweden | Wijkander M.,Public Health Agency of Sweden | Perskvist N.,Karolinska University Hospital | Balasubramanian V.,Astrazeneca | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The MIC of the novel antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug AZD5847 was determined against 146 clinical isolates from diverse geographical regions, including eastern Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia, using the automated Bactec Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system. These isolates originated from specimen sources such as sputum, bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, abscess material, lung biopsies, and feces. The overall MIC90 was 1.0 mg/liter (range, 0.125 to 4 mg/liter). The MICs of AZD5847 for isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were similar among drug-sensitive strains, multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains. The good in vitro activity of AZD5847 against M. tuberculosis and the lack of cross-resistance make this agent a promising anti-TB drug candidate. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Brogden K.A.,University of Iowa | Johnson G.K.,University of Iowa | Vincent S.D.,University of Iowa | Abbasi T.,Cellworks Group Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy

Acute and chronic inflammation commonly occurs throughout the oral cavity. The most common causes are physical damage and microbial infections, and less frequently immune reactions and malignant changes. All of these processes result in the induction of antimicrobial peptides, chemokines and cytokines that lead to cellular infiltrates, a vascular response, tissue destruction and cellular proliferation. A fascinating concept developing in the current literature suggests that antimicrobial peptides modulate the production of chemokines, cytokines and other cellular mediators and that this may have a larger ramification as an underlying mechanism mediating inflammation. Here, we propose that the ability of antimicrobial peptides to induce chemokines and anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the early events of oral inflammation and may be a target for the prevention or treatment of oral inflammatory conditions. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. Source

The present disclosure describes a composition and a kit having a plurality of compounds for use in the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases and chronic inflammatory connective tissue diseases, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The disclosure also relates to a process of obtaining the composition and the method of treating diseases by administration of the compositions.

Vali S.,Cellworks Group Inc. | Vali S.,Cellworks | Pallavi R.,Indian Institute of Science | Kapoor S.,Cellworks Group Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Systems and Synthetic Biology

Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that regulates key signaling proteins and thereby impacts cell growth and development. Chaperone cycle of Hsp90 is regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis through its intrinsic ATPase activities, which is in turn modulated by interaction with its co-chaperones. Hsp90 ATPase activity varies in different organisms and is known to be increased in tumor cells. In this study we have quantitatively analyzed the impact of increasing Hsp90 ATPase activity on the activities of its clients through a virtual prototyping technology, which comprises a dynamic model of Hsp90 interaction with clients involved in proliferation pathways. Our studies highlight the importance of increased ATPase activity of Hsp90 in cancer cells as the key modulator for increased proliferation and survival. A tenfold increase in ATPase activity of Hsp90 often seen in cancer cells increases the levels of active client proteins such as Akt-1, Raf-1 and Cyclin D1 amongst others to about 12-, 8- and 186-folds respectively. Additionally we studied the effect of a competitive inhibitor of Hsp90 activity on the reduction in the client protein levels. Virtual prototyping experiments corroborate with findings that the drug has almost 10- to 100-fold higher affinity as indicated by a lower IC50 value (30-100 nM) in tumor cells with higher ATPase activity. The results also indicate a 15- to 25-fold higher efficacy of the inhibitor in reducing client levels in tumor cells. This analysis provides mechanistic insights into the links between increased Hsp90 ATPase activity, tumor phenotype and the hypersensitivity of tumor Hsp90 to inhibition by ATP analogs. © 2009 The Author(s). Source

Azab F.,Washington University in St. Louis | Vali S.,Cellworks Group Inc. | Abraham J.,Washington University in St. Louis | Abraham J.,St. Louis College of Pharmacy | And 11 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology

The phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is activated and correlated with drug resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). In the present study we investigated the role of PI3KCA (PI3K-α) in the progression and drug resistance in MM. We showed that the gene expression of PI3KCA isoform was higher in MM compared to normal subjects. BYL719, a novel and specific PI3KCA inhibitor inhibited the survival of primary MM cells and cell lines but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. BYL719 induced the apoptosis of MM cells and inhibited their cell cycle by causing G1 arrest. BYL719 inhibited PI3K signalling, decreased proliferation and cells cycle signalling, and induced apoptosis signalling in MM cells. Finally, BYL719 synergized with bortezomib and carfilzomib, and overcame drug resistance induced by bone marrow stroma. These results were confirmed using in silico simulation of MM cell lines, BYL719 and bortezomib, and showed similar trends in survival, proliferation, apoptosis, cell signalling and synergy with drugs. In conclusion, PI3KCA plays a major role in proliferation and drug resistance of MM cells, the effects of which were inhibited with BYL719. These results provide a preclinical basis for a future clinical trial of BYL719 in MM as a single agent or in combination with other drugs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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