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Dehecq J.-S.,Agence de Sante Ocean Indien | Baville M.,Agence de Sante Ocean Indien | Margueron T.,Agence de Sante Ocean Indien | Mussard R.,Agence de Sante Ocean Indien | Filleul L.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Ocean Indien
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2011

The re-emergence of local transmission of chikungunya virus caused by Aedes albopictus since March 2010 in the Réunion Island, French territory in the southwest Indian Ocean, calls for better epidemiological surveys, vector control, and community-based chikungunya control. This paper describes the strategy and the new ways of vector control applied since the last major chikungunya virus outbreak in 2005-2007, and the high levels of collaboration with mayors and local associations for community involvement. Between March 17, 2010 (first chikungunya case) and July 1, 2010, 313 cases were investigated, 13,036 premises inspected, and 34,393 premises concerned by spatial treatment. The traditional entomologic indices don't explain the distribution map of chikungunya cases, and many other factors have to be measured for evaluating the risk of transmission, such as lifestyle, habitat, and the kind of environment the people live in. A big information campaign was conducted beside the implementation of traditional mosquito control techniques. The two themes of this campaign are environmental management and individual protection, considered as important components of chikungunya prevention. The outcome of the mosquito control strategy demonstrates that community participation is not enough, and more studies are required to define new ways of communication for promoting community-oriented activities to prevent chikungunya epidemics. © Société de pathologie exotique et Springer-Verlag France 2010. Source

Sissoko D.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Ezzedine K.,Center Hospitalier University | Giry C.,Center Hospitalier Of Mayotte | Moendandze A.,Conseil general de Mayotte | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Although Dengue virus (DENV) circulation had been documented in neighbouring South-western Indian Ocean Islands, its presence in Mayotte is poorly characterised. To address this issue, we aimed to assess the seroprevalence of dengue IgG antibodies (DENV-IgG Ab) among the population and to investigate potential associations with individual and household characteristics. Methods/Principal Findings: In November-December 2006 we conducted a cross-sectional serologic survey in Mayotte among 1,154 inhabitants aged ≥2 years by using a multistage cluster random sampling method. The overall prevalence of DENV-specific IgG antibodies (ELISA) was 22.73% (95% CI, 18.16-27.31). The age-specific seroprevalence increased with age (x2 for trend = 11.86, P,0.0006), and was linked with previous known outbreaks in this region. In multivariate analysis, older age, being born in the Comoros and living in a household with a low socioeconomic index were positively associated with DENV IgG antibody positivity. Conclusions: These findings document substantial prior exposure of the population of Mayotte to DENV and highlight the risk of severe illness due to the possibility of sequential DENV infections. Further investigations characterizing current DENV circulation patterns and associated serotypes are needed. © 2010 Sissoko et al. Source

Brottet E.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Ocean Indien | Jaffar-Bandjee M.C.,Laboratoire Of Virologie | Rachou E.,Observatoire regional de la sante de la Reunion ORS | Polycarpe D.,Agence de sante de locean Indien | And 3 more authors.
Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses | Year: 2015

The surveillance of infectious diseases in Reunion Island is based on a sentinel network of family physicians (FPs) coordinated by the Indian Ocean regional institute for public health surveillance (French acronym OI Cire). The objectives are to identify and monitor outbreaks of influenza, gastroenteritis, and chicken pox, and to characterize circulating influenza viruses. The network can monitor other potentially epidemic diseases. Method: The Réunion sentinel network ensures a continuous and permanent surveillance. Physicians send their weekly activity data to the Cire that collects, processes, and interprets it; they also collect samples for biological surveillance of influenza. Statistical thresholds, based on historical data and the estimated numbers of incident cases, are calculated to follow the trend, detect outbreaks, and quantify their impact. Results: The network currently includes 56 FPs and pediatricians, accounting for 6.5% of FPs on the island. The network has clarified the seasonality of influenza during the austral winter and identified the seasonality of acute diarrhea with an epidemic peak when school starts in August. The sentinel FPs's reports allowed monitoring the epidemic trend and estimating the number of cases during the 2005 and 2006 chikungunya outbreaks and 2009 influenza A (H1N1) outbreaks. Conclusion: The network has proven its contribution, responsiveness, and reliability for epidemiological surveillance during outbreak. It is an essential tool for infectious diseases surveillance in Reunion Island. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Solet J.-L.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Ocean Indien | Cadivel A.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Ocean Indien | Blanc I.,Center Antipoison Et Of Toxicovigilance | Tichadou L.,Center Antipoison Et Of Toxicovigilance | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire | Year: 2010

A toxicovigilance system, initially implemented in Reunion Island during the 2006 chikungunya outbreak to estimate the health impact related to exposure to insecticides used for vector control, was extended at the end of 2007 to all pesticides and insect repellents.This surveillance was based on a collection of signals from different sources, followed by an investigation of these signals by a medical toxicologist and data analysis led by the Indian Ocean Unit of the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS). The objective of this surveillance was to compile data and provide feedback to partners.In 2008, the surveillance system collected 257 signals possibly related to exposure to a pesticide or insect repellents. Among 167 exposures listed, and after elimination of duplicates, 62 (37%) were considered as possible cases of intoxication. Among them, 16 (26%) were related to an accidental exposure, mainly by inhalation of pesticides during the application of the product, and 46 cases (74%) were related to voluntary exposures through attempted suicide.It seems important to have a local toxicological expertise in an overseas territory away from Continental France. A debate is ongoing to extend the surveillance system to all intoxications occurring in Reunion and Mayotte Islands. Source

Renault P.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Ocean Indien | Boidin E.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Ocean Indien | D'Ortenzio E.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Ocean Indien | Balleydier E.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Ocean Indien | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2011

In 2006, increased mortality due to leptospirosis in Reunion Island had alerted the authorities and justified the conduct of this study in order to update knowledge on the epidemiology of leptospirosis, whereas the latest epidemiological data published on the disease dated back to 2003. This study followed the scheme of a descriptive retrospective survey based on data from reporting and investigation of hospitalized cases of leptospirosis that occurred in Reunion between the 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2008. Data from the National Reference Center (NRC) have also been used. The annual number of reported cases (40 to 50) was stable over the period, which contrasted with the historical decreasing trend of incidence reported by the NRC. The circumstances of exposure were those usually associated with the disease on the island: about 80% of cases were infected between January and June, during the wet season; the main exposure factor identified was the practice of agriculture, declared or not; Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae remained the most frequently isolated serovar, although regressing. Finally, our study has shown that excess mortality observed in 2006 did not result from an increased incidence but from a rise in the case fatality rate. This could be linked to the outbreak of chikungunya, which peaked in February 2006. In endemic areas of leptospirosis, health professionals should remain aware of the risk of occurrence of fatal cases during arbovirosis outbreaks. © Société de pathologie exotique et Springer-Verlag France 2010. Source

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