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Ruderman N.B.,Diabetes and Metabolism Research Unit | Ruderman N.B.,Boston University | Carling D.,Cellular Stress Group | Prentki M.,University of Montreal | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013

(Figure Presented) Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, as are central adiposity, dyslipidemia, and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and certain cancers. Regular exercise and calorie restriction have long been known to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease the prevalence of these disorders. The subsequent identification of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its activation by exercise and fuel deprivation have led to studies of the effects of AMPK on both IR and metabolic syndrome-related diseases. In this review, we evaluate this body of literature, with special emphasis on the hypothesis that dysregulation of AMPK is both a pathogenic factor for these disorders in humans and a target for their prevention and therapy.

Lallet-Daher H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lallet-Daher H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lallet-Daher H.,Center LeonBerard | Lallet-Daher H.,University of Lyon | And 29 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) constitutes a failsafe program that restricts tumor development. However, the mechanisms that link oncogenesis to senescence are not completely understood. We carried out a loss-of-function genetic screen that identified the potassium channel KCNA1 as a determinant of OIS escape that can license tumor growth. Oncogenic stress triggers an increase in KCNA1 expression and its relocation from the cytoplasm to the membrane. Mechanistically, this relocation is due to a loss of protein kinase A(PKA)-induced phosphorylation at residue S446 of KCNA1. Accordingly, sustaining PKA activity or expressing a KCNA1 phosphomimetic mutant maintained KCNA1 in the cytoplasm and caused escape from OIS. KCNA1 relocation to the membrane induced a change in membrane potential that invariably resulted in cellular senescence. Restoring KCNA1 expression in transformation-competent cells triggered variation in membrane potential and blocked RAS-induced transformation, and PKA activation suppressed both effects. Furthermore, KCNA1 expression was reduced in human cancers, and this decrease correlated with an increase in breast cancer aggressiveness. Taken together, our results identify a novel pathway that restricts oncogenesis through a potassium channel-dependent senescence pathway. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

Thornton C.,Cellular Stress Group | Bright N.J.,Cellular Stress Group | Sastre M.,Imperial College London | Muckett P.J.,Cellular Stress Group | Carling D.,Cellular Stress Group
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2011

Hyperphosphorylation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. Although the mechanisms underlying hyperphosphorylation are not fully understood, cellular stresses such as impaired energy metabolism are thought to influence the signalling cascade. The AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-related kinases MARK (microtubule-associated protein-regulating kinase/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase) and BRSK (brain-specific kinase) have been implicated in tau phosphorylation, but are insensitive to activation by cellular stress. In the present study, we show that AMPK itself phosphorylates tau on a number of sites, including Ser 262 and Ser 396, altering microtubule binding of tau. In primary mouse cortical neurons, CaMKKβ (Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β) activation of AMPK in response to Aβ (amyloid-β peptide)-(1-42) leads to increased phosphorylation of tau at Ser 262/Ser 356 and Ser 396. Activation of AMPK by Aβ-(1-42) is inhibited by memantine, a partial antagonist of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor and currently licensed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. These findings identify a pathway in which Aβ-(1-42) activates CaMKKβ and AMPK via the NMDA receptor, suggesting the possibility that AMPK plays a role in the pathophysiological phosphorylation of tau. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society.

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