Vanini V.,L Spallanzani National Institute For Infectious Diseases Inmi |
Petruccioli E.,L Spallanzani National Institute For Infectious Diseases Inmi |
Gioia C.,Laboratory of Cellular Immunology |
Cuzzi G.,L Spallanzani National Institute For Infectious Diseases Inmi |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2012
Objective: In Indian HIV-infected patients, IP-10 response to QuantiFERON-TB Gold In tube (QFT-IT) antigens has been associated to tuberculosis (TB). However, specificity for active TB was lower than that reported by QFT-IT, making accuracy for TB detection questionable. To investigate this uncertainty, likely due to India being highly endemic for TB, and to better identify TB correlates, we evaluated the IP-10-based assay in HIV-infected subjects in Italy, a low-TB endemic country. Methods: 195 individuals were prospectively enrolled; 118 were HIV-infected (21 with active TB, 97 without active TB, and distinguished as high/low-TB-risk). QFT-IT was performed and IP-10 was evaluated by ELISA. Results: Among the HIV-infected individuals, sensitivity for active TB was 66.7% by IP-10-based test and 52.4% (p = 1) by QFT-IT. IP-10-based assay showed a lower dependence on mitogen-response and CD4 counts than QFT-IT. Among subjects without active TB, a higher proportion of IP-10 responders was shown in high-TB-risk subjects than low-TB-risk subjects (40.0% vs 12.9%), similar to QFT-IT (37.1% vs 4.8%). Low-TB risk subjects showed 87.1% specificity for active TB by IP-10-based test vs 95.2% by QFT-IT. Conclusions: In a low-TB endemic country, besides IFN-γ, IP-10 response to QFT-IT is associated with active TB and TB risk factors in HIV-infected patients with lower dependence on mitogen-response and CD4 counts. © 2012 The British Infection Association.
PubMed | Laboratory of Cellular Immunology
Type: | Journal: Veterinary immunology and immunopathology | Year: 2016
High levels of production in intensive farming systems are associated with increased replacement rates as a result of multifactorial diseases. The so-called production diseases may include low-grade infection reducing profitability without increased morbidity. Such infections are sustained by low pathogenic viral and bacterial agents which give rise to full-blown disease in association with poor environmental conditions. In these farms, the results of vaccination may be disappointing. Therefore, fundamental issues should be dealt with toward successful immunoprophylaxis. High lean meat and milk production are associated with chronic inflammation and activation of the innate immune system vis--vis cellular stress. This may negatively affect adaptive immune responses. A negative modulation of the host microbiome by farm management practices and drug treatments is a further risk factor. The immune response to stressed cells questions the usual correlates of protection investigated after vaccination. In particular, there is evidence that specific and non-specific immune responses may overlap in vitro as a result of a high level of innate immune responses to Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPS) and stress antigens. A vigorous adaptive immune response to microbial agents may be sometimes counterproductive, as suggested in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Alternative outcomes should be sometimes pursued: a better homeostatic control of the inflammatory response, effective and self-limiting innate immune responses, and even tolerance induction. On the whole, successful immunoprophylaxis in intensive farming systems demands co-ordinated and multi-disciplinary efforts in terms of animal breeding, farm management and hygiene, correct choice and harmonization of the prophylactic tools (vaccines, immunomodulators, pre- and probiotics). Finally, there is evidence that disease-predicting parameters of the innate immune response may greatly ease the identification of herds and animals at risk, and contribute to reduced antibiotic usage on farm.
PubMed | Laboratory of Cellular Immunology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary immunology and immunopathology | Year: 2012
Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs that play an important role in host defense. The aim of our study was to develop reliable procedures for isolation and culture of pig tonsil cells, and to validate their possible use in functional immunoassays. Using our isolation procedure, we recovered on average 238.7 107.1 10(6) cells per tonsil couple with a mean vitality of 89.8 2.7%. These values significantly decreased 8 months after freezing at -80C along with the subsequent spontaneous release of both IgA and IgG in culture. These results suggest to use pig tonsil cells within 2 months from thawing to maintain suitable conditions in terms of recovery, vitality and release of antibody in vitro. Tonsil mononuclear cells also showed the ability to secrete antimicrobial peptides and to respond in vitro to immunological stimuli. On the whole, our study has defined operating conditions for tonsil processing, control of bacterial contaminations, time limits of storage at -80C, as well as for evaluating polyclonal Ig production in vitro. Such procedures are likely to be of some importance in studies on regional immunity and in the development of large animal models for biomedical sciences.