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Grabsch H.I.,University of Leeds | Grabsch H.I.,St Jamess Institute Of Oncology | Tan P.,National University of Singapore | Tan P.,Cellular and Molecular Research
Digestive Surgery | Year: 2013

The development of gastric adenocarcinoma is a complex multistep process involving multiple genetic alterations. Based on pathology, four different macroscopic types and at least two major histological types, intestinal and diffuse, have been described. Most gastric cancer (GC) show genetic instability, either microsatellite instability or chromosomal instability, which is considered an early event in gastric carcinogenesis. Molecular studies of alterations of single genes have provided evidence that intestinal and diffuse type GC evolve via different genetic pathways. Recent results from high-throughput whole-genome expression or copy number studies have demonstrated extensive genetic diversity between cases and within individual GC. Sets of commonly up- or downregulated microRNAs have been identified in GC and might be useful in the near future to identify pathways of GC progression. Results from detailed molecular and/or pathological GC studies, although promising, still have limited clinical utility in predicting survival and stratifying GC patients for appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Busuttil R.A.,Cancer Genetics and Genomics Laboratory | Busuttil R.A.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | George J.,Cancer Genetics and Genomics Laboratory | Tothill R.W.,Molecular Genomics Core Facility | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: Gene-expression profiling has revolutionized the way we think about cancer and confers the ability to observe the synchronous expression of thousands of genes. The use of putative genome-level expression profiles has allowed biologists to observe the complex interactions of genes that constitute recognized biologic pathways. We used gastric and ovarian datasets to identify gene-expression signatures and determine any functional significance. Experimental Design: Microarray data of 94-tumor and 45-benign samples derived from patients with gastric cancer were interrogated using Hierarchical Ordered Partitioning and Collapsing Hybrid analysis identifying clusters of coexpressed genes. Clusters were further characterized with respect to biologic significance, gene ontology, and ability to discriminate between normal and tumor tissue. Tumor tissues were separated into epithelial and stromal compartments and immunohistochemical analysis performed to further elucidate specific cell lineages expressing genes contained in the signature. Results: We identified a "stromal-response" expression signature, highly enriched for inflammatory, extracellular matrix, cytokine, and growth factor proteins. The majority of genes in the signature are expressed in the tumor-Associated stroma but were absent in associated premalignant conditions. In gastric cancer, this module almost perfectly differentiates tumor from nonmalignant gastric tissue and hence can be regarded as a highly tumor-specific gene-expression signature. Conclusions: We show that these genes are consistently coexpressed across a range of independent gastric datasets as well as other cancer types suggesting a conserved functional role in cancer. In addition, we show that this signature can be a surrogate marker for M2 macrophage activity and has significant prognostic implications in gastric and ovarian high-grade serous cancer. Clin Cancer Res © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Das K.,National University of Singapore | Gunasegaran B.,National University of Singapore | Tan I.B.,National Cancer Center Singapore | Tan I.B.,Genome Institute of Singapore | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2014

Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of global cancer mortality. Previous genomic studies have reported that several RTK-RAS pathway components are amplified in GC, with individual tumours often amplifying one component and not others ("mutual exclusivity"). Here, we sought to validate these findings for three RTK/RAS components (. FGFR2, HER2, KRAS) using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on a series of gastric tumours, cell lines and patient-derived xenografts. Applying dual-colour FISH on 137 gastric tumours (89 FFPE surgical resections and 48 diagnostic biopsies), we observed FGFR2 amplification in 7.3% and HER2 amplification in 2.2% of GCs. GCs exhibiting FGFR2 amplification were associated with high tumour grade (p = 0.034). In FISH positive tumours, striking differences in copy number levels between cancer cells in the same tumour were observed, suggesting intra-tumour heterogeneity. Using a multicolour FISH assay allowing simultaneous detection of FGFR2, HER2, and KRAS amplifications, we confirmed that these components exhibited a mutually exclusive pattern of gene amplification across patients. The FISH data were also strongly correlated with Q-PCR levels and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. Our data confirm that RTK/RAS components are mutually exclusively amplified in GC, and demonstrate the feasibility of identifying multiple aneuploidies using a single FISH assay. Application of this assay to GC samples, particularly diagnostic biopsies, may facilitate enrollment of GC patients into clinical trials evaluating RTK/RAS directed therapies. However, the presence of intra-tumour heterogeneity may require multiple biopsy samples to be obtained per patient before a definitive diagnosis can be attained. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Ang M.K.,National Cancer Center Singapore | Ooi A.S.,National Cancer Center Singapore | Ooi A.S.,Van Andel Research Institute | Thike A.A.,Singapore General Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms with a potential for recurrence. Current histological classification is not always predictive of clinical behavior. The aim of this study was to identify genetic changes associated with the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors in an Asian population, and to assess if genetic data supported the categorization of these tumors into the existing three grades of benign, borderline, and malignant. Expression profiling of 21 phyllodes tumors (6 benign, 10 borderline, 5 malignant) was performed using Affymetrix U133Plus 2.0 GeneChips®. Gene expression among benign, borderline, and malignant tumors was compared and a 29 gene list was able to classify them according to their histologic grade. Among these 29 genes are those responsible for matrix formation, cell adhesion, epidermis formation, and cell proliferation. Comparative genomic microarray analysis showed that the most common chromosomal alteration associated with borderline and malignant tumors was 1q gain, and an increasing number of chromosomal changes was noted with increasing histological grade. Upregulation of HOXB13 was seen in malignant relative to borderline phyllodes tumors and further investigated by immunohistochemistry in a corresponding set of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors. HOXB13 protein overexpression was found to be correlated with stromal hypercellularity and atypia (P = 0.03, P = 0.039, respectively) and may be implicated in the development of malignant phyllodes tumors. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Miao L.,Nanjing University | Wang Y.,Nanjing University | Xia H.,Cellular and Molecular Research | Yao C.,Nanjing Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death worldwide and the prognosis is still poor with 5-year survival of approximately 15%. Metastasis is the leading cause of death by cancer. Recent researches have demonstrated that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in the early process of metastasis of cancer cells. Here, we identified that SPARC/osteonectin, cwcv and kazal-like domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1) is a novel transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) target gene that regulates lung cancer cell EMT. TGF-β has been reported as a major inductor of EMT. We observed that the expression of SPOCK1 in lung cancer tumor tissues is significantly higher than matched normal lung tissues. Moreover, the expression of SPOCK1 was also significantly higher in metastasis tumor tissues than non-metastasis tumor tissues. Levels of SPOCK1 mRNA were increased among patients with shorter disease-free survival times, indicating the potential role of SPOCK1 in lung cancer progression and metastasis. Silencing SPOCK1 expression with endoribonuclease-prepared small interfering RNA (esiRNA) in lung cells inhibits lung cancer cell growth, colony formation and invasion in vitro. Interestingly, ectopic expression of SPOCK1 in epithelial lung cancer cells induced EMT with increased expression of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin and decreased expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin. We also found that the expression of SPOCK1 was increased under treatment of TGF-β, indicating that SPOCK1 is a novel downstream target of TGF-β. Taken together, our study showed that SPOCK1 is a novel metastasis related biomarker in lung cancer and may be new diagnostic and therapeutic target for lung cancer. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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