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Chhangani D.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Nukina N.,RIKEN | Nukina N.,Juntendo University | Kurosawa M.,RIKEN | And 4 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2014

Polyglutamine diseases are a family of inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by the expansion of CAG repeats within the coding region of target genes. Still the mechanism(s) by which polyglutamine proteins are ubiquitinated and degraded remains obscure. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that Mahogunin 21 ring finger 1 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase is depleted in cells that express expanded-polyglutamine proteins. MGRN1 co-immunoprecipitates with expanded-polyglutamine huntingtin and ataxin-3 proteins. Furthermore, we show that MGRN1 is predominantly colocalized and recruits with polyglutamine aggregates in both cellular and transgenic mouse models. Finally, we demonstrate that the partial depletion of MGRN1 increases the rate of aggregate formation and cell death, whereas the overexpression of MGRN1 reduces the frequency of aggregate formation and provides cytoprotection against polyglutamine-induced proteotoxicity. These observations suggest that stimulating the activity of MGRN1 ubiquitin ligase might be a potential therapeutic target to eliminate the cytotoxic threat in polyglutamine diseases. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Technology Indore and Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Piperine, a naturally occurring alkaloid, is well known as anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-proliferative agent. Piperine exerts such pharmacological activities by binding or interacting with various cellular targets. Recently, the first report for Piperine interaction with duplex DNA has been published last year but its interaction with G-quadruplex structures has not been studied yet. Herein, we report for the first time the interaction of Piperine with various DNA G-quadruplex structures. Comprehensive biophysical techniques were employed to determine the basis of interaction for the complex formed between Piperine and G-quadruplex DNA sequences. Piperine showed specificity for G-quadruplex DNA over double stranded DNA, with highest affinity for G-quadruplex structure formed at c-myc promoter region. Further, in-vitro studies show that Piperine causes apoptosis-mediated cell death that further emphasizes the potential of this natural product, Piperine, as a promising candidate for targeting G-quadruplex structure and thus, acts as a potent anti-cancer agent.


PubMed | Nagoya University and Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Type: | Journal: Journal of cellular biochemistry | Year: 2016

Diclofenac is the most commonly used phenylacetic acid derivative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that demonstrates significant analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative activity of NSAIDs and examined their apoptotic induction effects in different cancer cell lines. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these pharmacological agents induce apoptosis and exert anti-carcinogenic properties are not well known. Here, we have observed that diclofenac treatment induces proteasome malfunction and promotes accumulation of different critical proteasome substrates, including few pro-apoptotic proteins in cells. Exposure of diclofenac consequently elevates aggregation of various ubiquitylated misfolded proteins. Finally, we have shown that diclofenac treatment promotes apoptosis in cells, which could be because of mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release into cytosol. This study suggests possible beneficial insights of NSAIDs-induced apoptosis that may improve our existing knowledge in anti-proliferative interspecific strategies development. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-14, 2016. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Nagoya University and Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Type: | Journal: Neurobiology of disease | Year: 2016

Proteotoxicity of misfolded, disease-causing proteins is deeply implicated in the pathomechanisms for neurodegenerative diseases including copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the precise cellular quality control (QC) mechanisms against aggregation of misfolded mutant SOD1 proteins remain elusive. Here, we found that the Mahogunin ring finger-1 (MGRN1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, which catalyzes mono-ubiquitination to the substrate, was dysregulated in the cellular and mouse models of ALS and that it preferentially interacted with various mutant forms of SOD1. Intriguingly, the motor neurons of presymptomatic ALS mice have diminished MGRN1 cytoplasmic distribution. MGRN1 was partially recruited to mutant SOD1 inclusions where they were positive for p62 and Lamp2. Moreover, overexpression of MGRN1 reduced mutant SOD1 aggregation and alleviated its proteotoxic effects on cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that MGRN1 contributes to the clearance of toxic mutant SOD1 inclusions likely through autophagic pathway, and, most likely, the sequestration of MGRN1 sensitizes motor neurons to degeneration in the ALS mouse model. Furthermore, the present study identifies the MGRN1-mediated protein QC mechanism as a novel therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.


Chhangani D.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Mishra A.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

Impairment in the elimination of misfolded proteins generates cellular toxicity and leads to various late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms by which cells recognize abnormal cellular proteins for selective clearance remain unknown. Lack of the mahogunin ring finger-1 (MGRN1) E3 ubiquitin ligase in mice causes the development of age-dependent spongiform neurodegeneration. Here, we report for the first time that the MGRN1 E3 ubiquitin ligase interacts and nicely co-localizes with the cytosolic molecular chaperone Hsp70. The expression of MGRN1 increased following exposure to a variety of stressors. The inhibition of autophagy not only elevated endogenous MGRN1 levels but also caused MGRN1 to be recruited to cytosolic ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies. Finally, we showed that the overexpression of MGRN1 protects against cell death mediated by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that MGRN1 selectively targets misfolded proteins for degradation and may exhibit viable therapeutic potential for the treatment of spongiform neurodegeneration. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Upadhyay A.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Amanullah A.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Chhangani D.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Mishra R.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Mishra A.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2015

Efficient and regular performance of Ubiquitin Proteasome System and Autophagy continuously eliminate deleterious accumulation of nonnative protiens. In cellular quality control system, E3 ubiquitin ligases are significant employees for defense mechanism against abnormal toxic proteins. Few findings indicate that lack of functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases can be a causative factor of neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegeneration, cancer and ageing. However, the detailed molecular pathomechanism implying E3 ubiquitin ligases in cellular functions in multifactorial disease conditions are not well understood. This article systematically represents the unique characteristics, molecular nature, and recent developments in the knowledge of neurobiological functions of few crucial E3 ubiquitin ligases. Here, we review recent literature on the roles of E6-AP, HRD1 and ITCH E3 ubiquitin ligases in the neuro-pathobiological mechanisms, with precise focus on the processes of neurodegeneration, and thereby propose new lines of potential targets for therapeutic interventions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ageing research reviews | Year: 2015

Efficient and regular performance of Ubiquitin Proteasome System and Autophagy continuously eliminate deleterious accumulation of nonnative protiens. In cellular quality control system, E3 ubiquitin ligases are significant employees for defense mechanism against abnormal toxic proteins. Few findings indicate that lack of functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases can be a causative factor of neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegeneration, cancer and ageing. However, the detailed molecular pathomechanism implying E3 ubiquitin ligases in cellular functions in multifactorial disease conditions are not well understood. This article systematically represents the unique characteristics, molecular nature, and recent developments in the knowledge of neurobiological functions of few crucial E3 ubiquitin ligases. Here, we review recent literature on the roles of E6-AP, HRD1 and ITCH E3 ubiquitin ligases in the neuro-pathobiological mechanisms, with precise focus on the processes of neurodegeneration, and thereby propose new lines of potential targets for therapeutic interventions.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Technology Mandi and Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2016

In healthy cell, inappropriate accumulation of poor or damaged proteins is prevented by cellular quality control system. Autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) provides regular cytoprotection against proteotoxicity induced by abnormal or disruptive proteins. E3 ubiquitin ligases are crucial components in this defense mechanism. Mahogunin Ring Finger-1 (MGRN1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the Really Interesting New Gene (RING) finger family, plays a pivotal role in many biological and cellular mechanisms. Previous findings indicate that lack of functions of MGRN1 can cause spongiform neurodegeneration, congenital heart defects, abnormal left-right patterning, and mitochondrial dysfunctions in mice brains. However, the detailed molecular pathomechanism of MGRN1 in cellular functions and diseases is not well known. This article comprehensively represents the molecular nature, characterization, and functions of MGRN1; we also summarize possible beneficiary aspects of this novel E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, we review recent literature on the role of MGRN1 in the neuro-pathobiological mechanisms, with precise focus on the processes of neurodegeneration, and thereby propose new lines of potential targets for therapeutic intervention.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Technology Mandi and Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Type: | Journal: Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2017

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most neglected tropical diseases among widely endemic neurological diseases. It is caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. The clinical symptom for the outcome of infection and progression of disease is pleomorphic and its neuro-pathomechanism is still illusive. Identification of host genetic factors and their association with disease susceptibility is one of the most important areas of research towards personalized medicine in the era of omics. Several genes and their allelic variations had been identified to be associated with various neurological disorders; however, the information for parasitic diseases affecting the central nervous system is very limited. Both Th1 and Th2 arms of the immune system are reported to be active at different stages of T. solium infection in the brain. Recently, several papers had been published, where the role of host genetic makeup with NCC had been explored. Increased frequency of HLA-A28, HLA-B63, HLA-B58, TLR 4 Asp299Gly, sICAM-1 gene K469E, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were found to be associated with increased risk of NCC occurrence, while HLA-DQW2 and HLA-A11 were shown to be providing protection from disease. In this review, we have summarized these findings and analyzed the influence of host genetic polymorphism on the susceptibility/resistance of host to NCC.


Chhangani D.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Upadhyay A.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Amanullah A.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Joshi V.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit | Mishra A.,Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Unit
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

The protein quality control (QC) system protects cells against cellular toxicity induced by misfolded proteins and maintains overall cellular fitness. Inefficient clearance of or failure to degrade damaged proteins causes several diseases, especially age-linked neurodegenerative disorders. Attenuation of misfolded protein degradation under severe stress conditions leads to the rapid over-accumulation of toxic proteinaceous aggregates in the cytoplasmic compartment. However, the precise cytoplasmic quality control degradation mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that the Nedd4-like E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH specifically interacts with mutant bona fide misfolded proteins and colocalizes with their perinuclear aggregates. In a cell culture model, we demonstrate ITCH recruitment by cytoplasmic inclusions containing polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin or ataxin-3 proteins. Transient overexpression of ITCH dramatically induced the degradation of thermally denatured misfolded luciferase protein. Partial depletion of ITCH increased the rate of aggregate formation and cell death generated by expanded polyglutamine proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of ITCH alleviates the cytotoxic potential of expanded polyglutamine proteins and reduces aggregation. These observations indicate that ITCH is involved in the cytosolic quality control pathway and may help to explain how abnormal proteins are targeted by QC ubiquitin-protein ligases.

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